Executive Summary

Ethnic Minority Women’s Empowerment in Vietnam

Women in remote ethnic communities in Vietnam are not equally benefiting from the remarkable economic growth over the past decade. They experience high levels of poverty, unequal participation in economic opportunities, limited options to adapt to changes in the climate, and have a limited voice in decisions that affect them. CARE’s Ethnic Minority Women’s Empowerment project (EMWE), supported by Australian Aid, works with ethnic minority women to overcome these challenges. Read More...

Myanmar COVID 19 Rapid Gender Analysis

As of 7 June 2020, there have been 228 confirmed cases of COVID-19 in Myanmar,1 and new cases continue to be confirmed.2 Myanmar’s humanitarian and conflict dynamics, high poverty rate, flow of returning migrants, high numbers of internally displaced people and urban slum-dwellers, and high proportion of workers in the informal sector present a range of challenges in the context of COVID-19. These factors tend to make prevention and control measures more difficult, while also intensifying the potential impacts of a larger outbreak, if it were to occur.
Despite the relatively low number of verified cases within its borders to date, the pandemic has already had an outsized economic impact in Myanmar. Migrant workers, informal sector workers including sex workers, and garment sector workers have all been disproportionately affected. Women in Myanmar have traditionally been under-represented in public decision-making processes, a trend which is continuing in structures established to respond to COVID-19. This means that even as women are disproportionately affected by the crisis, they have less say in how their communities and country respond to it, increasing the risk of a COVID-19 response that does not adequately address the needs and priorities of the most vulnerable women and girls. Read More...

Uganda COVID-19 Rapid Gender Analysis

The novel corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) pandemic has been widely reported to have distinct gendered implications in countries around the world.1 This rapid gender analysis (RGA) seeks to explore the implications of COVID 19 in specific areas in northern Uganda to inform current CARE Uganda programming in the region, as well as to serve as reference to any other stakeholders working in the area and with similar target groups. The specific locations this RGA covers are: Omugo settlement, Palabek
settlement, Gulu municipality, Arua municipality, Moyo district and Lamwo district.

This study looks at how COVID 19 is affecting men, women, boys and girls, from refugee and non-refugee backgrounds, in the urban, rural and settlement contexts. It follows earlier RGAs2 conducted prior to the outbreak of the pandemic and seeks to identify where there have been changes of note as a result of the pandemic. On this basis, it provides a number of recommendations to donors and for implementing organisations. Read More...

MALAWI COVID-19 RAPID GENDER ANALYSIS

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by a newly discovered coronavirus has had a devastating impact globally. While WHO declared COVID-19 as a world pandemic on 30th January 2020, Malawi declared a state of disaster on 20th March 2020 and this was followed with some restrictions including closure of schools. While countries in Southern Africa have imposed lockdowns and other restrictions, as of 7th May Malawi was yet to go on lockdown, which was stopped through a court decision. Malawi is in an election period for fresh presidential elections and with the campaign period officially opened, observance of COVID-19 safety and preventive measures will be a challenge.

Global research findings have shown that COVID-19 has significant social and economic impact on people, especially those living in poverty-stricken countries. Malawi is at more risk due to other significant health challenges that would exacerbate the severity of COVID-19, such as high levels of malnutrition, malaria, anemia, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis.

For women and girls, the impacts can be much higher due to their social responsibilities as primary caregivers, coupled with childcare and nutrition and farm work. Further a majority of health care workers are female (especially nurses). In Malawi, the nursing profession is dominated by female nurses of which 91.5% are professional and 84.7% are associates . With the Covid 19 response, there is also an increased risk of exposure to the infection for health care workers, particularly if health care services are not provided with adequate Personal Protection Equipment (PPE).
Read More...

West Africa COVID-19 RGA May 2020

As of mid-April 2020, the number of confirmed COVID-19 cases in Africa is relatively low. That said, there has only been limited testing in Africa, leading many experts to be concerned that Africa could still experience outbreaks on, or beyond, the scale experienced in other regions. Governments are imposing restrictions on movement to reduce the risk of potential outbreaks, and this is directly impacting the ability of humanitarian actors to provide necessary assistance. At the same time, some governments, notably the governments of Mali and Niger, are also expanding their safety nets to help people respond to COVID-19 and its impacts.
CARE’s Rapid Gender Analysis draws from CARE’s deep experience in the region, and from interviews with 266 people across 12 countries. It points to serious ongoing economic, health, and financial impacts that will be especially severe for women. It also paints a mixed picture of impact on women’s rights. Special concern is paid to encroaching limitations to women’s access to resources, as well as to their representation and participation in formal decision-making; increased incidents of gender-based violence. These worrying
observations are accompanied by hopeful examples of women leading the response to the COVID-19 crisis and finding ways to negotiate equitable relationships with men in their communities, as well as with their husbands/male partners at home. Read More...

Bangladesh COVID-19 Rapid Gender Analysis–Cox’s Bazar

As of 4 May 2020, 10,143 cases of COVID-19 have been confirmed in Bangladesh. To date, only 21 cases have been identified in Cox’s Bazar district, which is home to over 850,000 Rohingya refugees and extremely vulnerable host communities. Although no positive COVID-19 cases have been reported in the camps, this is likely to change soon. The conditions in the camps, including overcrowding, limited sanitation facilities and overburdened health system, have made the COVID-19 situation uniquely complex.

A COVID-19 outbreak in the refugee camps and neighboring communities will disproportionately affect women and girls and other vulnerable populations. Gender norms in both refugee and host communities limit women’s and girls’ ability to protect themselves from the virus and have a significant impact on prevention and response efforts. Refugees are reporting “rapidly deteriorating security dynamics within the camps between Rohingya and host communities” stemming from fears around COVID-19.

Women are already being blamed for COVID-19, resulting in a rollback of women’s rights, including mobility, access to services and information. Men, women, and community leaders in are blaming women’s “dishonorable” behavior as the cause of COVID, causing a backlash against women’s rights. Women are experiencing more behavior policing, mobility restrictions, and Gender Based Violence. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis for COVID 19 East, Central and Southern Africa

The impacts – direct and indirect – of public health emergencies fall disproportionally on the most vulnerable and marginalized groups in society. Interconnected social, economic, and political factors pose complex challenges for the ECSA region’s ability to respond to COVID-19. The region already faces significant health challenges that would exacerbate the severity of COVID-19, such as high levels of malnutrition, malaria, anemia, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Access to healthcare in the region is the lowest in the world, thus there is limited capacity to absorb the pandemic1. Gender-based inequality is extensive in the region. Women are at a higher risk for exposure to infection due to the fact that they are often the primary caregivers in the family and constitute 70% of frontline healthcare responders.2 Most women already face limited access to sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) services, and the region struggles with high levels of maternal mortality. For example, mother mortality rates recorded in South Sudan were 1150 per 100 000 live births3. COVID-19 will only increase women’s safety risks and care burdens as health services become stretched and resources shift to COVID-19 responses.
Women and girls are at increased risk of violence during the COVID-19 period. Current rates of violence against women and girls combined with the prevalence of harmful traditional practices leads to increased vulnerability. Income loss and limited mobility, compounded with existing gender role expectations, may contribute to increases in intimate partner violence and other forms of gender-based violence. Read More...

Addressing Food Crisis in Yemen

In 2017, in response to the one of the world's worst manmade crises, a consortium of CARE and Action Contra La Faim (ACF) implemented a EU-Funded Multi-Purpose Cash program in Abyan and Amran governorates with a mean aim of enhancing food security (FS) as well as supporting livelihood activities, savings groups and the resilience of communities with the rehabilitation of critical community-identified shared assets. The program design was aligned to the Humanitarian Development Nexus framework, which focuses on a shift from supplying humanitarian assistance to those who need it, to reducing the demand for humanitarian assistance by addressing the root causes.

This report presents the evaluation findings from the project during over its full implementation period (October 2017- February 2019) in the targeted areas. It uses the DAC Evaluation Criteria: Relevance, Efficiency, Effectiveness, Impact and Sustainability. It also provides insight on the internal and external factors influencing the achievement (or non-achievement) of the project objectives. The analysis should inform decisions about replicating interventions, draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the implementation strategies, highlight lessons learned and lead to recommendations to inform future programming and policymaking. Read More...

Gender and Power Analysis Report: Disaster Ready Project, Timor-Leste 2018

Timor-Leste is subject to a range of disaster events, including rapid onset high winds, landslides, flash floods and minor earthquakes, which tend to happen frequently but have a limited humanitarian impact. Higher risk natural disasters include slow onset events such as prolonged rains or droughts, which are particularly severe in La Niña/El Niño years, increasingly affecting communities throughout Timor-Leste. These emergencies are likely to increase in frequency and/ or severity in coming years as a result of climate change. With approximately seventy percent (70%) of the population living in rural areas, reliant on subsistence agriculture and with poor access to infrastructure, services and markets, communities are highly vulnerable to disasters. The high prevalence of malnutrition and inadequate water and sanitation pose additional challenges and impact on communities’ ability to prepare for natural disaster and adapt to the changing environment.

The primary goal of the Gender and Power Analysis is to gain a broader understanding of gender and power dynamics that will affect the success of the Disaster READY project. The objectives of the analysis are to:

- understand how gender and social norms and beliefs influence women and men's ability to prepare and respond to disasters;
- identify gender inequalities and harmful social and cultural norms that affect women and men's ability to prepare and respond to disasters;
- identify positive trends, factors and role models that can be used to promote and drive transformation of harmful gender norms and practices;
- identify actions that Disaster READY can implement to promote equality in women and men's ability to prepare and respond to disasters;
- apply the analysis to strengthen existing activities and ensure that they are not gender blind.

Disaster READY is a 4.5 year, $42.5m Australian Government funded program to help Timor-Leste and Pacific Island communities prepare for and build resilience to disasters.

Implemented by Australian NGOS with their local partners, Disaster READY has a specific focus on strengthening the ability of local communities and organisations in the Indo Pacific region, with an initial focus in Fiji, Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, PNG and Timor-Leste.
Read More...

Gender and Power Analysis Report: Water for Women Project, Timor-Leste 2018

This is a Gender and Power Analysis for the Australian Aid DFAT funded, Water for Women (WfW) Project commencing July 2018-December 2022. The project will be implemented in Manufahi, Liquica municipalities of Timor-Leste by a consortium of Water Aid and CARE International, who both have strong country presence.

The project will equip each municipality to lead gender transformative, nutrition-sensitive, inclusive, sustainable WASH services to contribute to improvements in health, gender equality and social inclusion. The project will mainstream gender equality and social inclusion approaches by developing and implementing gender and inclusion responsive national and sub-national platforms. Addressing gender inequalities and social exclusion is fundamental to WASH and is embedded in each of the four outcomes of the project:

- Gender equality and social inclusion integrated into effective national WASH systems.
- Women and men share roles and responsibilities in decision making in the household and at
the community level, with a particular emphasis on WASH.
- Municipalities use gender transformative approaches to deliver nutrition sensitive, inclusive,
sustainable WASH services.
- Strengthened National WASH sector knowledge management and learning systems, including
effective exchange between relevant sectors.

The purpose of Gender and Power Analysis (GPA) was to validate the activities already considered for the project but also to identify gender equality and social inclusion gaps within the WASH sector that could be further strengthened by the project. Read More...

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