Migration

Regional project FAIR III “ For Active Inclusion & Rights of Roma Women in the Western Balkans III”

This intervention builds on extensive CARE’s expertise and experience in facilitating process related to women’s empowerment and gender equality across the globe and in the Balkan region. It also intends to scale up approaches and models that have proven successful over the last six years of the FAIR projects’ implementation (FAIR and FAIR II). The project seeks to empower Roma women and girls to be free and able to exercise their rights to live a healthy, dignified life free from violence, inequality and discrimination with support from their partners, families and communities in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Montenegro. This will be accomplished through four output level results that need to be met for the longer-term changes to happen, they are inter-connected and mutually reinforcing since only in that way the outcome can be accomplished.

The first one (Output 1) refers to the enhanced capacities of Roma CSOs, youth and key community actors to practice and promote gender equitable, healthy and non-violent lifestyle with help of tested models and approaches. Under the second expected result (Output 2) Improved access to and provision of services for Roma, Egyptian (RE) women and girls (in particular on SRMH, GBV and Education) will be ensured through strengthening of the Roma CSOs and the existing participatory accountability community mechanisms. Output 3will enable three national-level Roma women networks to be active and contribute to the effective functioning of the regional Roma Women Balkans Network and its enhanced efforts towards Post 2020 EU Roma Integration Agenda. In the last expected result (Output 4), Roma women and girls, CSOs and Networks are part of the regional and global social movement initiatives promoting and advocating for gender equality and (minority) women’s rights. The project will directly target 26,150 people in total –aiming at 85% Roma and over 60% women and girls. Data collection under this project will be disaggregated by sex, age and ethnicity, whenever possible. Over20,000 people are expected to be reached in the three target countries through a series of promotional activities. Final Beneficiaries will include about 78,000 people in the 3 target countries based on the assumption that each target group person will reach out to at least 3 persons in his/her direct environment. [13 pages] Read More...

DIAGNÓSTICO SITUACIONAL SOBRE EL TRÁFICO Y LA TRATA DE PERSONAS EN EL CONTEXTO DE LA CRISIS HUMANITARIA EN LA ZONA TRANSFRONTERIZA DE PERÚ Y ECUADOR

En el año 2000 se aprobó el Protocolo para prevenir, reprimir y sancionar la trata de personas, especialmente mujeres y niños, que complementa la Convención de las Naciones Unidas contra la Delincuencia Organizada Transnacional que entró en vigor el 25 de diciembre de 2003. Desde esa fecha el desarrollo normativo de la trata de personas es permanente tanto en el Perú como en el Ecuador, países que comparten una amplia frontera común. Paralelamente se han creado nuevos servicios para la protección y asistencia a las víctimas, así como para la persecución y sanción del delito. En ese contexto, diversos fenómenos han ocurrido con particular intensidad, sobre todo en la zona fronteriza entre Perú y Ecuador. Dos en particular han marcado el desarrollo de la trata de personas en esa zona. La crisis humanitaria producto de la migración masiva de ciudadanos venezolanos y el contexto actual de emergencia sanitaria por el COVID-19, que obligó a ambos países a cerrar sus fronteras, abriéndose más de un circuito clandestino por el cual el flujo migratorio ha continuado discurriendo sin solución de continuidad a pesar del control militar implementado por el Perú desde el 26 de enero del 2021, lo que ha merecido un pronunciamiento conjunto de las Defensorías del Pueblo de Ecuador, Colombia y Perú exhortando a sus autoridades a tener como premisa la dignidad humana de las personas migrantes con necesidad de protección internacional, observar las normas universales y regionales de derechos humanos en este campo, así como evitar actos que promuevan el rechazo por parte de las comunidades de acogida. En ese contexto, las vulnerabilidades propias de las personas migrantes, así como de adolescentes y jóvenes de las regiones contiguas a la zona de frontera, se vieron potenciadas por la crisis económica generada a causa de la pandemia, así como por la pauperización de las condiciones del empleo marcadamente informal. Esas circunstancias que han agravado las necesidades de las personas han sido aprovechadas para la comisión de diversos delitos de explotación de seres humanos. Paralelamente la respuesta pública se ha visto impactada por la crisis sanitaria que ha reducido su capacidad para enfrentar el problema, además de las limitaciones que ya presentaba. En ese escenario, la sociedad civil y las organizaciones de cooperación han jugado un papel importante para paliar las necesidades. Por otra parte, el panorama de la trata de personas en la zona de frontera presenta varios desafíos que están descritos a lo largo del presente estudio y que sugieren un modelo de
gestión más eficiente para poder enfrentarla de manera eficaz, así como para atender el creciente número de personas vulnerables producto de la crisis humanitaria y de la realidad resultante como consecuencia de la emergencia sanitaria. El cierre de la frontera y su permeabilidad hacen evidente la necesidad de implementar una estrategia migratoria integralen cada país, así como en conjunto. Para la elaboración del presente informe se ha recogido información de fuentes documentales, así como de las instituciones públicas y privadas de ambos lados de la frontera, incluyendo a personas migrantes. Dicha información ha permitido describir las conductas, medios y finalidades del delito de trata; las características de los autores del delito de trata y tráfico de personas, las características de las víctimas; las principales rutas de la trata y tráfico de personas, así como las actividades en las que podría estar presente; los servicios de protección para víctimas; el estado de los mecanismos de sanción del delito de trata y tráfico de personas, así como la relación entre la migración, la trata y tráfico de personas. [46 Pages] Read More...

CROSS-BORDER MIGRATION INTO INDIA AND DEVELOPMENT – Advocacy Paper

The migration discourse has not remained confined to focusing upon the mobility of people from low income countries to high income countries. There has been growing attention to migration from higher-income countries to lower-income countries. The current literature, however, is increasingly taking note of human movements within any of the two regions – the higher income countries and the lower income countries, also described as the global north and the global south respectively. Based on the level of development of the countries of origin and destination, the United Nations has therefore identified a typology of two inter-regional and two intra-regional streams of contemporary international migration: south-north and north-south, south-south and north-north (United Nations 2013). This typology also subsumes the category of a transit country in its roles of being an origin and a destination country at the same time. [26 Pages] Read More...

Women, Migration and Development: Investing in the future

On the 17th and 18th of July 2014, the International Conference on Women, Migration and Development: Investing In The Future was convened by CARE
International and hosted at the Overseas Development Institute in London. The objectives of the conference were to: 1) highlight the challenges faced by vulnerable migrant workers, especially women, 2) advocate, based on CARE and others’ experiences, for strategies, policy and practical responses which need to be taken to protect migrant workers’ well-being, particularly with respect to safe mobility and access to healthcare, 3) recognize women migrants’ contribution as economic actors and advocate for policies and planning processes that ensure their protection, 4) advocate for recognition of the role of migration as a key development enabler in the post-2015 development agenda. CARE and ODI presented the findings from their five year EMPHASIS (Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV and AIDS Services, Information and Support) programme in South Asia. EMPHASIS, a project which started as a HIV and health intervention, was successful in surfacing and addressing other aspects such as safety and dignity of migrants, economic empowerment, financial inclusion and safe remittances, access to education for migrants’ children, and women’s empowerment. The conference was a response to the call at the May 2014 Stockholm Global Forum for Migration and Development both for civil society/government cooperation around regional systemic approaches to migration and for urgently needed programmatic data and evidence on migration. EMPHASIS is considered among very few projects globally which comprehensively cover the migration experience from source, through transit, to destination countries. The EMPHASIS Learning Series report, which provides a comprehensive overview of
the EMPHASIS programme, was launched during the conference. [5 Pages] Read More...

Evaluation of Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV and AIDS Services (EMPHASIS)

EMPHASIS is a 5 year project funded by Big Lottery Fund, UK, which was initiated in August 2009 and is due to conclude in July 2014. It has been implemented in Nepal, India and Bangladesh to address both HIV and AIDS vulnerability and safe mobility issues of cross border migrant populations. Its overall goal has been to contribute to reduction of vulnerability of mobile populations (particularly women) to HIV infection across selected cross border regions within India, Bangladesh and Nepal. There has however, appropriately, been an increased focus on safe mobility issues within the last two years of the project. The three main outcomes of the project focus on: 1) the development of an effective and integrated cross border model of HIV prevention, care, treatment and support to benefit mobile populations and their families and target groups at source, transit and destination locations who are vulnerable to acquiring and spreading HIV and AIDS, 2) building the capacity of partner organizations (including regional authorities, government agencies, border police, customs officials, research institutions, NGO, Community Based Organizations [CBO] and key stakeholders) to deliver improved and integrated services to mobile populations vulnerable to HIV, 3) Increasing recognition of the vulnerabilities of mobile populations and demonstration of ways to address them in source and destination communities that will inform policies and produce evidence based advocacy messages with which to lobby government stakeholders. The aim of this evaluation is to assess the project according to its three outcomes areas and to assess the effectiveness and relevance of different interventions. One week visits to India, Nepal and Bangladesh were conducted at the end of January/ early February 2014 by a team of three people, during which interviews and focus group discussion were conducted, and a Lickert Scale tool administered. These visits were then supplemented by some additional meetings in Bangladesh in April, following the production of the first draft report. An endline study was conducted in parallel to the evaluation, and its conclusions are also drawn upon in this report. [88 Pages] Read More...

A Qualitative study comparing the effects and outcomes of HIV-related interventions for Nepalese migrants – at source, transit and destination

The qualitative study, commissioned by Care Nepal, sought to explore the effects and outcomes of the EMPHASIS project, launched four years ago to reduce HIV and AIDS vulnerability among cross border migrants; and to influence national and regional policies relating to safe mobility through evidence generated regionally. The project, working along a continuum of source, transit, and destination areas, provides HIV prevention and treatment services to migrants and their families. Additionally, the project partners with local stakeholders to ensure safe passage of migrants on transit besides providing other support services. The study was, thus, designed to assess the influence of the project in addressing HIV vulnerabilities, and at the same to enquire into whether inter-country passage has been made safer for migrants. The study aimed to answer the following research questions: a) How has the EMPHASIS intervention impacted HIV vulnerabilities among Nepali migrants, b) What are the qualitative differences between HIV related attitudes and behaviors between migrants reached at destination and their spouses reached at source and those not reached either at source or destination, c) What are the qualitative differences between HIV
related attitudes and behaviors between spouses who have been reached by the project and those who have not been reached by the project, d)) What are the benefits and barriers of support services provided to migrants for safe mobility and empowerment. The study was conducted among 60 migrants and family members, and 5 key informants in four locations- two at the destination site of Delhi and two at the source site of Nepal. In depth interviews by trained researchers were conducted with the help of semi structured interview guides. [39 Pages] Read More...

Journeys: Experiences of Nepalese and Bangladeshi cross border migrants living with HIV

Enhancing Mobile Population’s Access to HIV and AIDS Information (EMPHASIS), Services and Support is a 5-year project funded by Big Lottery Fund, UK. EMPHASIS is implemented in Nepal, India and Bangladesh to address AIDS related vulnerabilities of cross border populations who are moving between Bangladesh, India and Nepal EMPHASIS is an operations research project and one of the pioneer regional projects to address HIV and AIDS vulnerability among cross border populations. The project aims to address its goals through service provision,
capacity building of relevant partners/stakeholders, and advocacy through generating evidence. As part of generating evidence, EMPHASIS developed a research study to investigate the dynamics associated with accessing services for mobile groups who are already affected by HIV and AIDS. This study examines people and questions that were not covered by the EMPHASIS baseline survey that was previously conducted.

Three separate studies were conducted in Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Bangladesh and Nepal first initiated the study aiming to understand the dynamics of HIV infection among migrant populations and also to assess barriers to accessing services at source. In India the study was initiated later, to assess the barriers to accessing services at destination. The prime objective of the study was to present these barriers to services at the regional level among the regional stakeholders. Sharing the findings at South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) could be an important way to initiate dialogue between the governments of Nepal and India to formalize a cross border referral system. Country specific barriers to services will be provided as evidence to inform policy at the national level. [45 Pages] Read More...

Vulnerability to HIV & AIDS: A social Research on Cross Border Mobile Population from Bangladesh to India

There are a growing number of people migrating between Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Mobility has long been linked with heightened vulnerability to HIV & AIDS. While overall
HIV prevalence is low in Bangladesh and Nepal, there is a growing concern that vulnerable mobile populations are forming a bridge between high prevalence areas of India and low prevalence areas in Bangladesh and Nepal. Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV & AIDS Services Information and Support (EMPHASIS) is a regional program being implemented by CARE Bangladesh, CARE India and CARE Nepal and led by CARE International UK (CIUK) to reduce AIDS related vulnerabilities among mobile populations crossing the borders of Bangladesh and Nepal into India. This 5-year (August 2009 – July 2014) program, is funded by the Big Lottery Fund (BIG) of United Kingdom.

Baseline Research on cross border migration was initiated to understand the drivers of mobility, access to services for migrants at source and destination, and to understand the risk and vulnerabilities associated with migration and HIV & AIDS. The study was conducted using quantitative methods and a separate qualitative study was conducted to enhance and complement the quantitative data. [57 Pages] Read More...

EXAMINING WOMEN AND GIRLS’ SAFE SPACES (WGSS) IN HUMANITARIAN CONTEXTS: Research Findings from Northwest Syria and South Sudan

Gender-based violence (GBV) in humanitarian contexts represents a global issue of grave concern, disproportionately affecting women and girls. In light of its detrimental impact on the health, well-being and development of survivors, the international community has placed a strong priority on combatting and responding to GBV in all its forms.
Women and Girls’ Safe Spaces (WGSS) are among the most widely implemented GBV prevention and response programming interventions globally. In spite of their popularity and potential to increase the well-being, safety, and empowerment of women and girls, there is a lack of rigorous evidence regarding the role of these spaces in the lives of participants. Building an evidence base is particularly crucial in order to understand the impact and effectiveness of WGSS as an intervention and determine ways in which existing programming can be adapted to increase overall quality.
In response to the crucial need for evidence around WGSS programming globally, CARE USA conducted a study to examine the effectiveness of WGSS in the lives of women and girls in two conflict-affected settings, Northwest Syria and South Sudan. These locations are particularly relevant for this research as the selected study sites are home to a large number of internally displaced persons (IDPs), and are settings in which women and girls face a significant risk of experiencing GBV. These contexts are also ones in which CARE has existing WGSS interventions in place. Read More...

MAGNIFYING INEQUALITIES AND COMPOUNDING RISKS The Impact of COVID-19 on the Health and Protection of Women and Girls on the Move

More than one year into the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic—with some countries seemingly on their way out of the crisis while others enter new waves—evidence of its impact is growing. COVID-19 is increasing short-term humanitarian needs and negatively affecting longer-term outcomes for marginalized populations and people in vulnerable situations, significantly setting back hard-won development gains, magnifying inequalities, and compounding risks. Among those worst affected are the more than 80 million people worldwide—approximately half of whom are women and girls—who have been forcibly displaced by drivers such as persecution, conflict, generalized violence or human rights violations.1
The majority of forcibly displaced people live in resource-poor countries with weak public health and social protection systems, and economies that have been hard-hit by the pandemic.2 Yet, to date, there has only been limited research around the unique ways in which women and girls on the move are affected.3 This despite predictions of significant impacts on access to, and use of, basic health services—including for sexual and reproductive health (SRH)—and the overall protection environment, including increases in prevalence and risk of gender-based violence (GBV).
Placing gender at the center of its humanitarian and development responses, CARE undertook new research in Afghanistan, Ecuador, and Turkey between April and May 2021 to better understand how COVID-19 is impacting the health and protection of women and girls on the move. The three countries represent different types of forced displacement across multiple regions: internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugee returnees in Afghanistan; more recent migrants and refugees due to the Venezuelan crisis in Ecuador; and longer-term Syrian refugees living under temporary international protection in Turkey. The primary data collected for this research included more than 1,000 surveys with women on the move and from host communities, to allow comparison; 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) with women and adolescent girls; and 45 key informant interviews (KIIs) with government actors, health and protection service providers, humanitarian organizations, and CARE staff. Read More...

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