Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

SWEEP-Water for Food Security, Women’s Empowerment and Environmental Protection Project in East and West Belesa Woredas of Central Gondar Zone, Amhara Regional State

Introduction and Context of the Evaluation
This report refers to the midterm evaluation (MTE) of “SWEEP-Water for Food Security, Women’s Empowerment and Environmental Protection Project” funded by Austrian Development Cooperation through Austrian Development Agency (ADA) and implemented by CARE Ethiopia. The project was commenced in October 2017 and will be implemented through September 2020 in East and West Belesa Woredas of Central Gondar Zone, Amhara National Regional State. With the ultimate impact of “Chronically food insecure households in Belesa Woredas have improved food security and resiliency”, the project was designed and implemented to achieve the following outcomes.
i. Improved access to water resources for domestic consumption and productive use and enhanced and sustainable productivity of land for varied uses
ii. Vulnerable groups empowered to contribute productively in the household and community
iii. Local government capacitated and community empowered to initiate and lead community development and adaptive measures
The purpose of this mid-term evaluation was assessing the degree of success based on the five OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) standard evaluation parameters. Ten selected project intervention Kebeles from the two intervention Woredas were visited in this evaluation process. Participatory and multi-stage evaluation methods, data sources and triangulations were made to analyze the project status and measure the performance. Quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were used to collect data from direct project beneficiaries such as chronically food insecure and drought affected people, rural women and girls, persons with disabilities, youth, relevant government sector and administrative offices at various levels and CARE. Overall, household survey was administered on 845 HHs and 14 KII, 21 FGDs, 20 direct observations and 16 in-depth interviews were made. The following description illustrates the summary of key midterm evaluation findings. Read More...


In alignment with USAID’s resilience strategy to mitigate recurrent shocks on vulnerable populations in Mali, the overall goal of the Integrated Rural Program to Improve Nutrition and Hygiene – USAID Nutrition and Hygiene – project (2013‐2019) was to improve the nutritional status of women and children, with a special emphasis on building resilience through the prevention and treatment of undernutrition.
The project – which was implemented by a CARE‐led consortium that included Family Health International (FHI 360), the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and a Malian non‐governmental organization (NGO) called Yam‐Giribolo‐Tumo (YA‐G‐TU) – targeted three regions in Mali: Mopti, Ségou and Koulikoro. These regions are all characterized by drought and climate‐related chronic food insecurity and high acute malnutrition rates. The project was implemented in nine districts across these three regions: Nara (Koulikoro Region), Niono (Ségou Region), Mopti, Bandiagara, Bankass, Tenenkou, Youwarou, Koro and Djenne (Mopti Region). In 2016, the
project received additional funding from Feed the Future to reinforce its agriculture component in the Mopti region.
The project aimed to reach children during the 1,000‐day “window of opportunity” period between conception and the first two years of life through the promotion of community and health sector services, improved agricultural practices, nutrition education and social behavior change communication. Our approach addressed both the immediate causes of malnutrition – such as inadequate dietary intake and infectious diseases, including diarrheal diseases – and the underlying root causes of malnutrition – such as poor hygiene, inadequate sanitation infrastructure and barriers to the access to and consumption of quality, diverse foods. Read More...

USAID HAMZARI PROJECT Review of Youth Needs and Labor Market Assessment

This paper is a homebased, desktop review completed in the U.S. over 20 workdays of the Niger – Youth Needs and Labor Market Assessment draft report dated October 2019. This assessment was mainly based on the analysis of data collected in the field in the August 2019 period within three rural communes (Chadakori, Guidan Roumdji and Guidan Sori) targeted by the Hamzari Project in Niger’s Maradi Region.1 As it is possible that all the data collected is not reflected in this draft report, the author of this review attempts to complement this prior initial draft report with his own in-depth knowledge of Niger. Read More...

Impact Socio-Economique du COVID-19 chez les Jeunes au Niger

Le COVID-19 est une maladie infectieuse découverte à Wuhan (Chine) en décembre 2019. Elle est transmise principalement d’une personne à une autre par le biais de gouttelettes respiratoires expulsées par le nez ou par la bouche lorsqu’une personne malade tousse, éternue ou parle.

Le Niger ne fait pas exception des pays épargnés par le COVID-19. A cet effet, le Gouvernement s’est active à mettre en place avec l’appui des partenaires techniques et financiers des mesures pour lutter contre le virus . Ces mesures ont permis un contrôle efficace de la maladie. Parmi celle-ci, on peut citer la suspension ou limitation des passagers pour les transports en communs, le couvre-feu, l’isolement de la ville de Niamey etc.

Ces mesures bouleversent malheureusement tous les secteurs économiques. Selon le rapport publié par Dispositif National de Prévention et de Gestion des Crises Alimentaires, ces mesures auront un impact sur les dépenses des ménages:
• La mise en quarantaine et le couvre-feu pourraient augmenter de 30% les dépenses liées
à l’alimentation (hausse des prix) ;
• La réduction du temps de travail, la présence des enfants à la maison pourront occasionner
une augmentation de 10% des dépenses d’énergie et d’eau de 30% dans les centres urbains
• L’interdiction des cérémonies sociales (mariage, baptême, funérailles) pourrait faire baisser les dépense y afférentes de 30% dans les villes chef-lieu des régions et de 50%
dans celle de Niamey ;
• Les dépenses liées à la communication pourraient augmenter de 50% à Niamey et 20%
dans les autres centres urbains à cause du confinement (saturation des réseaux);

Les dépenses des ménages liées principalement à l’hygiène corporelle et équipements sanitaires pourront augmenter de 50% en milieu urbain et 10% en milieu rural.

C’est dans ce cadre que Youth Tea, un laboratoire pilote initié par CARE International au Niger a décidé de conduire une analyse sur l’impact socio-économique du coronavirus sur les jeunes filles et garçons en milieu urbain et rural (Communes de Niamey et de Bermo). Read More...

Final Project End-line assessment of Shelter, NFI, Hygiene, SRHR and Livelihood Support for Disaster-Affected Populations in Afghanistan 2018-2020

The Emergency Shelter, NFI, Hygiene, SRHR and Livelihood Support for Disaster-Affected Populations in Afghanistan 2018-2020 Project aims to provide emergency assistance to the identified beneficiaries settled in Kabul, Parwan, Kapisa, Balkh, Ghazni, Khost and Paktya provinces of Afghanistan. The interventions covered under this project included Shelter, NFI, WASH, Livelihoods and SRHR needs of the women, men, boys and girls affected by disasters. The sample of 352 households for this end line evaluation was structured as according to the proportion beneficiaries per the different project outputs The two main output blocks of hygiene/SRHR on the one hand and different forms of cash and NFI support on the other are well captured in the end line survey. In addition to the quantitative approach, 8 FGDs, 7 KIIs and 3 IDIs conducted were conducted with the project beneficiaries, stakeholders and the GAC project team.

Cyclone Idai Response and Recovery Project in Manicaland Province: Final Evaluation Report

CARE International in Zimbabwe and the International Rescue Committee (IRC) Consortium implemented an ECHO funded project in Chipinge and Chimanimani districts. The consortium implemented early recovery interventions, seeking to address the immediate WASH and basic needs of the Cyclone Idai affected populations. The interventions were centered on a community-based integrated approach focusing on building local capacities and empowering communities to regain control over their lives and become more resilient using a robust cash-based component. The project is targeting a total of 9 wards in Chimanimani and Chipinge districts. The project also implemented integrated WASH support interventions in 2 wards in Chipinge district and 1 ward in Chimanimani district whilst implementing the Multi-Purpose Cash Transfer project in 4 wards in Chimanimani district.

The eleven-month project (1 May 2019 to 30 March 2020) aimed to respond to the urgent needs of vulnerable populations through integrated WASH, food security and livelihoods assistance. The overall objective of the project is to provide immediate access to integrated WASH and food security and livelihoods support to the cyclone-affected population.

The consortium conducted an internal final evaluation survey in ward 1 & 4 of Chipinge district and wards 10, 13, 14, 16, 17 & 21 of Chimanimani district for all the interventions to facilitate evidence-based monitoring and evaluation as well as to match targets with the expected project outcomes. The results will be used to draw lessons learnt for future programming. This survey adopted a quantitative and qualitative methodology. A survey questionnaire with close ended questions administered through KoBo collect. Qualitatively, Focus group Discussions with project beneficiaries and Key Informant interviews were sources of data for this assignment. A review of project documents was also done in assessing the intervention. In selecting project beneficiaries to engage in the end line survey, proportional stratified random sampling was employed.

The compilation of the project evaluation report was made possible by individuals who dedicated their valuable time. Sincere gratitude to the CARE International and International Rescue Committee (IRC) project staff for their tireless efforts throughout the course of the evaluation. Appreciation goes to the recruited enumerators who participated actively in the collection and processing of the survey data. Special mention also goes to the project staff and managers for the administrative and logistical support during the exercise. The respondents (Cyclone Response and Recovery Project beneficiaries) in Chipinge and Chimanimani are specially thanked for their participation as units of analysis for the evaluation, without them the exercise would not have been possible. Special mention also goes to the CARE & IRC Monitoring and Evaluation unit for analysis and report writing. Read More...

Provision of life-saving WASH services for Rohingya Refugees in Bagghona/Potibonia (Camp 16), Ukhiya Upazila, Cox’s Bazar District: END LINE SURVEY REPORT

Provision of life-saving WASH services to the Rohingya refugee and host population project for Ukhia Upazila, Cox's Bazar district was implemented in Moynarghona (camp 16) by CARE Bangladesh with funding from UNICEF for twelve (12) months (February, 2019 to February, 2020). The goal of the project was to improve the quality of integrated WASH service delivery to support the well-being of children under 5 years, women, girls, men, boys the elderly and persons with disability in emergency situation. The project targeted 21,883 refugees (52% women and 48% men) with water, sanitation and hygiene promotion interventions.

CARE conducted the midterm assessment in February 2020. The survey involved both quantitative and qualitative data collection tools and approaches. The samples were drawn systematically, with the sample size determined following most common statistical formula. A total of 300 respondent/households from camp 16 participated and the data collection. The questionnaires were uploaded in tablets with KoBo data collection application for accuracy and timeliness.

The objectives of the study are as follows:
- To understand water access situation for the beneficiary households in the camp 16.
- To know the sanitation status and use by households in the camp 16.
- To identify current Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of targeted respondent on water sanitation and hygiene practices.
- To identify water, sanitation and hygiene challenges for the households in camp 16. Read More...

Analyse Rapide Genre pour COVID-19 Niger

Le Covid-19 est une nouvelle souche de coronavirus (CoV) n´ayant pas été précédemment identifiée chez l'homme. L'épidémie à Covid-19 s'est propagée à l'échelle mondiale depuis son premier signalement et elle a été déclarée une urgence de santé publique de portée internationale (USPPI), classé le 11 mars 2020 parmi les pandémies.

Cette situation de crise sanitaire a un impact certain sur le système de santé nigérien et sur son économie, mais aussi et principalement sur la vie des populations nigériennes déjà bouleversées par d´autres chocs et stress. Au Niger l'impact de la pandémie est encore exacerbé par la crise sécuritaire, la violence continue et les urgences humanitaires.

L´expérience tirée des épidémies précédentes confirme que l´impact des crises est différent chez les femmes, les hommes, les filles et les garçons, et que les réponses qui mettent en place des dispositifs incluant les aspects séxoespécifiques permettent de maintenir le bien être des personnes et évitent que les ménages sombrent dans la pauvreté et l´exclusion. Les analyses des effets et impacts de ces crises ont permis d´identifier des points forts et des vulnérabilités que nous ne devons pas oublier en ce moment.

Les études faites ont tendance à conclure que les inégalités de genre et autres inégalités s’aggravent souvent pendant une crise, mais en réalité les évidences montrent que les crises révèlent les inégalités structurelles et systémiques préexistantes qui causent lors d´une crise plusieurs types et niveau d’impacts sur les personnes selon leurs groupes d´appartenance.

Malheureusement, ces inégalités ne sont pas systématiquement incluses dans les réponses aux crises. CARE International et Le projet GenCap au Niger ont senti la nécessité de conduire une analyse rapide genre pour mettre en évidence les impacts sexospécifiques de la pandémie de Covid-19 pouvant informer l´équipe humanitaire pays (EHP) dans la réponse au Covid-19.

Ce rapport est destiné à l´équipe humanitaire. Il est organisé autour de grands thèmes et domaines d’intérêt particulièrement importants pour ceux dont la programmation fait progresser l’égalité des sexes. Il cherche à approfondir l’analyse de genre disponible en tirant des enseignements des données disponibles sur le genre pour l’urgence de santé publique Covid-19.

Baseline Report in Conducted in East and South Darfur Focused on Health, Nutrition, and WASH

The humanitarian situation in Sudan has continued to deteriorate since 2018, where the number of people in need of humanitarian assistance steadily rose from an estimated 700,000 to a total of 5.5M individuals. Across Sudan, 3.8 million people are urgently in need of WASH assistance, 5.2 million people are in urgent need of access to basic primary health care services, and a total of 2.8 million
children and Pregnant and Lactating Women (PLW) suffering from acute malnutrition. Darfur remains an epicenter of large-scale protracted displacement.
There have been limited baseline assessments conducted in CARE’s project areas due to the recent political uncertainties, insecurity, staff capacity and funding constraints. This baseline assessment was conducted internally by staff of CARE International Switzerland in Sudan with support from an RRT member deployed for a few days in country. The RRT worked with M&E team in Khartoum to plan
and train volunteers and CARE staff on baseline survey. The volunteers under the supervision of CARE staff undertook data collection and cleaning; and the RRT member performed the analysis and the report writing.
The assessment interviewed 277 sampling units and each unit represented a household using a household questionnaires tool. Of the respondents interviewed 71% were women and 29% men. The age groups interviewed included adolescent (1%), adults aged 18-49 years (83%) and the elderly aged 50+ years (16%). Read More...

WASH in Camps Final KAP Survey in North East Syria

CARE North East conducted an Endline Survey in Areesha and Al Hole camps at Al Hassakeh and Abo Khashab camp in Deir-ez-Zor governorate. In order to achieve the following objective:
• Assess community ability to access the quality of water supply through rehabilitation of water supply networks and chlorination where necessary
• Assess community ability to access to functioning sanitation systems through rehabilitation of sanitation systems and landfills
• Assess community knowledge about maintaining household and community hygiene practices through hygiene promotion.
• Assess the local capacity to sustain these interventions through the development and training of WASH management committees (WMC). Read More...

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