Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Improved WASH Services to the Myanmar Refugees Population in camps 15 (Jamtoli) and 16 (Potibonia), Ukhiya Upazila, Cox’s Bazar

Applying both quantitative and qualitative tools and approaches, the end-line assessment was conducted in February 2022. It covers 415 respondents' households from camps 15 and 16—data collection done with tablets in KoBo. The samples were drawn systematically. First, the sample size was determined following the most common statistical formula. The objectives of the study are as follows: 1) To know the present situation context on WASH; 2) To identify the targeted respondent's current Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP).

The study findings reveal the following:
Water
- The most commonly reported primary sources for drinking water were Piped water tap/Tap Stand, reported by 66% of households.
- In terms of water collection, male engagement has been increased. Overall, 86% of households reported women, followed by adult males (55%) and Children (6%). However, the male also helps them when they cook and cloth wash.
- Overall, only 2% of households reported a combined travel and waiting time of more than 30 Water containers.
- Females preferred to get 'Kolsi' (a pitcher) instead of Bucket or Jerrycan for carrying water. On the other hand, male and adolescent children preferred Jerrycan for carrying the water.
- 76% of respondents feel safe collecting enough water to meet their households' needs, such as drinking, cooking, laundry, bathing etc. However, women also reported that they feel unsafe because men go to water points to collect water.
- A significant proportion of households (88%) do not treat drinking water. Because they believe the drinking water source is safe—12% of households use the aqua tab to treat their water.
Sanitation
- The most-reported defecation (sanitation options) for household members five and above was communal latrines 86%, followed by shared latrines 14%, and single-household latrines 7%. Others places (2 %), bucket and open defecation was seldom reported 1%.
- The accessible latrine is one of the beauties of this project. This latrine is included: The railing on the way, The handle inside, The tap, The commode, The single-use.
- The community also thinks that these latrines will be equally helpful for elderlies.
- A significant 79% responded to the affirmative of privacy of latrine use. A significant number of
- 18% of the households' female members use the designated bathing facilities. However, this figure is low because of privacy concerns.
Hygiene
- All (100%) respondents mentioned that they cleaned every time they filled with fresh/clean water. While at the time of hurriedness, that type of cleaning activity has disrupted.
- 100% of households owned soap at the time of the interview. The study further explored other hand washing options/solutions households use when they do not have soap; because of CoVID-19, all respondents, even children, are aware of handwashing. They can recall the critical time of handwashing.
- Regarding the best way to receive health and hygiene messages, 45% stated Home visits by volunteers, and 2nd choice is by the local leaders. However, the study findings also revealed that only 7% of households said they do not know how to prevent diarrhea.
- 69% of females used reusable clothes, 16% used disposable pads. The reusable cloth is the most preferred for use during the menses.
- Most female respondents said they wash and reuse the MHM materials and dispose of way is Household/Trash bin, Throw in the open waste area/communal bins, In the latrine, Bury in the soil, and, Burn them
RECOMMENDATION
- Consideration of men, women and girls carrying water and provide water container that these particular groups prefer;
- The child-to-chid session needs to discuss the importance of Gender Marker because children remove the gender markers frequently, which causes a problem for the women;
- Need to keep attention to the elderly person in terms of WASH facilities along with Persons with Disabilities;
- Video documentaries for hygiene promotion may be more effective together; in this connection, CARE can collaborate with "shongjog" which is the open platform of CwC in Rohingya Camp. Read More...

Knowledge Attitude & Practice (KAP) Survey of WASH Services Project in Dadaab Refugee Camps

The European Commission Directorate General Humanitarian Aid & Civil Protection (ECHO) funded CARE to implement Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) project in Ifo, Dagahaley and Hagadera refugee camps in Dadaab. The overall objective of the project was self-reliance in the provision of essential WASH services for persons of concern in Dadaab refugee camps.
Specifically, the project focused on provision of potable water, managing solid waste disposal and delivering a comprehensive environmental sanitation program that incorporated vector control and health/hygiene promotion for refugees and COVID-19 response. The overall objective of this survey was to examine knowledge, attitudes and practices of the beneficiaries, gaps in the WASH activities in Dagahaley, Ifo and Hagadera camps and to provide information that would improve future programming.
The survey adopted a cross-sectional descriptive research design, and employed quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection which included: Literature Review, 392 Household Surveys, four Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and direct observations.
Read More...

COOPERER III Relèvement et renforcement Financier des populations vulnérables affectées par la COVID 19 RAPPORT DE L’ÉTUDE DE BASE

CARE International au Cameroun a obtenu à travers CARE France un soutien financier du Centre de Crise et de Soutien (CDCS) du Ministère français de l'Europe et des Affaires Etrangères, pour implémenter le projet : « Relèvement et renforcement Financier des populations vulnérables affectées par la Covid-19 », en abrégé « COOPERER III » ou encore « ResCOV-19 », sur le corridor Kaélé-Touloum-Yagoua dans la région de l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun, sur la période du 1er Avril 2021 au 31 Mars 2022. S’inscrivant dans la continuité de ses actions entrepris à travers les projets COOPERER I et COOPERER II dans ces localités (Kaélé, Touloum et Yagoua), CARE se propose de poursuivre le soutien de la résilience économique et de protéger les moyens de subsistance des femmes et des jeunes touchés directement ou indirectement par la Covid-19, en valorisant les acquis des précédents projets.
L’action de CARE Cameroun dans ces Communes est de : « Contribuer à l’accès aux services sociaux de base en matière d’accès à l’eau et aux opportunités économiques des femmes et des jeunes touchés par la pandémie de la COVID-19 dans la Région de l’Extrême-Nord du Cameroun, Axe Kaélé-Touloum-Yagoua ». De manière spécifique il sera question de : (1) Renforcer et sensibiliser le personnel des communes et les communautés sur la protection Covid et la gouvernance autour des infrastructures sociales de base (point d’eau, hygiène), dans les communes de Kaélé, Touloum et de Yagoua, (2) Améliorer l’accès des femmes et les jeunes dans les zones Kaélé, Touloum et Yagoua, aux opportunités économiques via une approche de sensibilisation et développement économique.
Les principales recommandations issues de cette étude vont dans le sens de :
▪ Poursuivre la sensibilisation des CGPE sur l’importance de leur adhésion à la micro-assurance ;
▪ Organiser un recyclage/formation des membres des CGPE et de la micro-assurance sur leurs rôles et responsabilités ;
▪ Accompagner les bureaux de micro-assurance à l’élaboration des statuts et règlements intérieurs (pour celles qui n’en disposent pas) ;
▪ Définir clairement les responsabilités des communes vis-à-vis de la micro-assurances des forages ;
▪ Faire un plaidoyer auprès de l’exécutif municipal pour qu’ils apportent un appui au fonctionnement de la micro-assurance notamment en ce qui concerne l’acquisition d’un bureau ;
▪ Renforcer la dynamique associative à travers la redynamisation/création des réseaux d’AVEC fortes et interconnectées ;
▪ Poursuivre le processus d’autonomisation des femmes via le renforcement des capacités en matière de leadership, d’entrepreneuriat y compris le pouvoir de négociation. Read More...

Post Distribution Monitoring/Evaluation finale du projet « COVID-19 : Prévention, protection et relèvement économique »

Les premiers cas de COVID-19 ont été enregistrés au Cameroun en début mars 2020. Au 18 avril 2020 le Cameroun est le 2e pays le plus touché en Afrique subsaharienne et le premier pays de la CEMAC avec 7860 cas confirmés au 08 juin 20201. Afin de limiter la propagation du virus COVID19, le gouvernement a mis en place des mesures de prévention strictes, dont la suspension des
vols commerciaux, la fermeture des frontières, la fermeture des écoles, la fermeture dès 18h des bars, restaurants et lieux de loisirs, l’interdiction de rassemblements de plus de 50 personnes, ou encore l’obligation du port du masque en public à partir du 13 avril 2020.
Pour apporter sa contribution à cet effort de solidarité, CARE International au Cameroun, a mis en œuvre le « Projet COVID-19 : Prévention, protection et relèvement économique » dans le District de santé de Biyem-Assi (Yaoundé) de juin à septembre 2020 en ciblant spécifiquement 150 femmes et filles IDPs et TS. Mis en œuvre en collaboration avec Horizons Femmes, ce projet a fait l’objet d’une évaluation finale interne afin de mesurer et apprécier les changements (éventuels) dus à l’intervention du projet sur les bénéficiaires par rapport à la période concernée.
En ce qui concerne la qualité de l’intervention, l’évaluation établit : (i) la pertinence du projet qui est aligné sur les besoins prioritaires des cibles, les objectifs de développement durable et les politiques nationales, y compris les stratégies de réponse face au COVID-19 ; (ii) une efficacité et une efficience satisfaisantes, les activités réalisées ayant permis d’atteindre les objectifs visés à des coûts et des délais raisonnables ; (iii) une pérennité envisagée, malgré la courte durée du projet, notamment par la continuité de certaines activités dans le cadre du projet CHAMP ; une prise en compte du genre acceptable, ce qui a permis d’adresser les besoins différenciés à chaque groupe ciblé par le projet.
Les recommandations formulées vont dans le sens de : (i) élargir l’intervention dans d’autres zones accueillant la même cible ; (ii) clarifier au lancement du projet les différents niveaux de diffusion de l’information ainsi que le type d’information à communiquer ; (iii) déployer le transfert monétaire inconditionnel dans davantage de projets du programme de redressement et relèvement post-crise ; (iv) accompagner les bénéficiaires ayant développé/redynamisé des AGR à la maturation de leurs activités ; (v) penser à une composante qui permettent aux IDPs qui le souhaitent de retourner vers leurs localités d’origine dans la mesure ou la situation sécuritaire évoluerait dans le sens de l’apaisement ; (vi) revoir la stratégie de sensibilisation sur la Hotline en insistant sur la signification du terme « Hotline » ou trouvant une appellation plus accrocheuse ; (vii) conserver la dynamique du code unique et l’implication des bénéficiaires dans les différentes étapes du projet pour une meilleure redevabilité. Read More...

HBCC (Hygiene and Behavior Change Coalition) Project: Inclusive Communities – Changing behaviors to respond to COVID-19

The “Promoting safer hygiene practices for women and girls to remain safe and live better lives project has been implemented between the 23rd of July 2020 and the 31st of August 2021 through CARE International in Jordan and funded by Unilever-UKAID HBCC (Hygiene Behaviour Change Coalition). The project’s overall objective was to support the most vulnerable women and girls in conflict communities, refugee, asylum and host populations within the Syrian crisis region to improve their key hygiene behaviours and be better equipped to protect themselves from COVID-19 transmission through mass awareness, interpersonal communication and digital media communication.
CARE Jordan implemented a package of multiple interventions which includes mass media, digital communication, and in some cases targeted face-to-face interactions complemented by the provision of hygiene and dignity kits to promote key hygiene behaviours of the targeted beneficiaries. The mass media and digital campaign, which targeted community members who live in Amman, Zarqa/Azraq town, Irbid, Mafraq, and Azraq Refugee Camp, but also reached beyond these areas in particular with the mass media intervention; focused on a variety of messages in line with the national/local Health Service approved guidelines as well as some of the Unilever Global assets like the PASSWORD Campaigns, Snake and Ladder game, and Mobile Doctorni. Messages covered issues of prevention, protection, safety, security and where to seek early support when showing signs and symptoms of COVID-19. Read More...

RANO WASH Final Evaluation

Rural Access to New Opportunities in Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (RANO WASH) is a five-year
$30 million bilateral United States Agency for International Development (USAID) water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) activity in Madagascar. Its period of performance is June 2017 to June 2022. CARE International leads the consortium implementing the project, and sub-awardees include Catholic Relief Services (CRS), WaterAid, BushProof, and Sandandrano. The program aims to reach 250 rural communes in six high-priority regions of Madagascar: Vatovavy Fitovinany, Atsinanana, Alaotra Mangoro, Amoron’i Mania, Haute Matsiatra, and Vakinankaratra. RANO WASH is built around three interconnected strategic objectives (SOs):
• SO 1: Strengthening the governance and monitoring of water and sanitation
• SO 2: Increasing the engagement of the private sector in the delivery of WASH services
• SO 3: Accelerating the adoption of healthy behaviors and the use of WASH service

The Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Partnerships and Learning for Sustainability (WASHPaLS) project completed a mid-term evaluation between April and August 2021 to assess whether the approaches employed and activities undertaken are successfully contributing to the program’s goal of increasing equitable and sustainable access to WASH services.
Overall, the Evaluation Team assessed the program to be complex, ambitious, and innovative; perceived positively by a large majority of stakeholders; and seen as a sector leader. While water supply provision through the public private partnership (PPP) model is substantially off-track, there are plausible reasons for these delays, and important lessons to be learned. Sanitation results, particularly regarding Open Defecation Free (ODF) status, are above target Read More...

A Lifesaving GBV, Women’s Leadership, and SRMH Support for Refugees, in Uganda, Arua District, West Nile ENDLINE EVALUATION – FINAL REPORT

CARE International in Uganda commissioned an endline evaluation to establish the performance of the GAC 3 project on outcome indicators and related information to determine reasonable targets and guide for assessing the outcomes of the project interventions. This report presents the results of the end term evaluation for the GAC 3. The results are from the two sampled refugee settlements of Rhino and Imvepi in Madi Okolo and Terego District formerly Arua District in West Nile Uganda. Overall the end term evaluation survey reached a total of 280 household respondents (186F, 94M) within both settlements.
Fieldwork was conducted for five days, using mixed quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods. Quantitative data was obtained through a household survey using mobile data collection devices. A detailed questionnaire was developed, pre-tested for incorporation of relevant information. Primary qualitative data was obtained through six Focus Group Discussions (involving women, girls, boys and men) and twenty Key Informant Interviews that comprised of GAC 3 project staff, district local government officials, health workers, health partners, Office of the Prime Minister, among others. Qualitative data from mainly key informant interviews and FGDs were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques and the findings were used to strengthen the interpretation of the quantitative findings.
The end line evaluation findings indicate that there is improved feeling of safety and dignity. This was measured at household and community level. There was an improved feeling of safety and dignity as shown by the survey at 91% (92%F, M89%). Further interrogated, the respondents indicated that they felt safe at both household and community levels. At the community level people feel safe at 86% (86%F, 86%M) and at the household level they feel safe at 93% (94%M, 91%F). The study findings indicate men as change agents and as clients in relation to Gender Based Violence (GBV) seem to have been successful exhibited by the high values. Read More...

Livelihoods, WASH and Protection Support to Drought and Conflict-Affected IDPs & Host Communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia

This report presented an end-line survey for the project entitled Livelihoods, WASH, and Protection Support to Drought and Conflict-Affected IDPs & Host Communities in Somali Region, Ethiopia. End line findings on WASH-related variables confirmed that the WASH response impacted the
life of the target community. Read More...

Integrated WASH and Multipurpose Cash Support to IDPs and host Communities in Oromia and Somali Regions

This report presented an end-line survey for the project entitled Integrated WASH and Multipurpose Cash Support to IDPs and host communities in Oromia and Somali Regions, Ethiopia. The endline survey objective was to assess the impact of a one-year project compared to the baseline dataset. The data collection was conducted from September 10-20, 2021. End line findings confirmed that the project impacted the life of the target community. Progress from baseline showed for most of the variables measured under this end line survey compared to baseline data. Read More...

Integrated Wash, Health And Protection Response To Covid-19 In West And East Hararghe Zones Of Oromia Region, Ethiopia

The report presented findings of end-line survey findings compared with baseline data for the same project. East and West Hararghe zones are located within the Oromia region, one of the largest and most populated regions of Ethiopia. Like many parts of Oromia and the country, over 80% of the people in East and West Hararghe rely on agricultural livelihoods. The main activities of the project are hygiene promotion, provision of hygiene supplies, hand washing facilities installation at health centers, and integrating protection actions. The project was implemented in Kersa and Babile Woredas of East Hararghe Zone and Meiso and Gumbibordode Woredas of West Hararghe Zone.
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