Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene

Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning (SUFAL) Project in the 2020 Monsoon Floods

Background: ‘Supporting flood Forecast-based Action and Learning’ (SUFAL) project was designed to contribute to reducing the adverse impacts of the increasing frequency of catastrophic flooding on the vulnerable and poor communities through Forecast-based Action (FbA). The project was funded by The Directorate-General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operations (ECHO) and was implemented through a consortium led by CARE Bangladesh, with Concern Worldwide, Islamic Relief and Regional Integrated Multi-Hazard Early Warning System for Africa and Asia (RIMES). The project was implemented in three northern districts of Bangladesh: Jamalpur, Gaibandha, and Kurigram. FbA contributed to disseminating Flood Early Warning messages with a lead time of 10 – 15 days with timely and accurate weather forecast information, while and it also helping to identify potential flooding areas.

Methodology: The primary purpose of the study was to “Evaluate the impact of early actions” applied through the SUFAL project on household and community beneficiaries in responding to the 2020 monsoon floods. Customized OECD-DAC criteria, Quasi-experimental design (Difference-in-Difference Method), Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) framework and Value for Money (VfM) framework were used as guiding methods and tools to design study instruments and evaluate the impact of early actions at every stakeholder level. The study covered a control group in non-project areas and three treatment groups in the project areas: Treatment group 1 (EWM support), Treatment group 2 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH support), Treatment group 3 (EWM + Evacuation + Shelter + WASH + Cash-grant support). Treatment groups were categorized in three different groups to conduct cost-effectiveness analysis. The study areas were in the districts of Kurigram (Hatia, Begumganj, Buraburi, Shaheber Alga unions), Gaibandha (Bharatkhali, Saghata, Ghuridaha, Haldia unions) and Jamalpur (Kulkandi, Chinaduli, Noarpara, Shapdhor. The survey sample consisted of 224 control respondents (of which 153 were women) and 754 treatment respondents (of which 426 were women), among which Sample for treatment group 1, 2, and 3 were 293 (100 women), 292 (192 women) and 169 (134 women), respectively. A total of 118 of the 754 treatment households interviewed through the survey were women-headed households and 38 out of 224 control group households were women headed households. The team had conducted 7 FGDs with community members in the three implementation areas, and 27 KIIs with community volunteers, project staff, government officials, and other related NGOs.

Impact: It was found through the study that less people in treatment group experienced damages compared to control households, treatment households saved more resources in 2020 than control households, and the average monetary values of assets saved by treatment group in 2020 were higher compared to the control group households. Due to the drawn-out duration and intensity of the flood in 2020, respondents reported that they were not able to prevent more damages although they took more early actions. Besides, treatment areas were the most flood affected areas. The early messages had helped the community to prevent damage to their assets and livelihoods. The percentage of damage prevented in agricultural sector for the treatment group had increased to 28% since the flood of 2019. The damage prevented in fisheries had increased significantly by 18 percent in 2020 in compared to that of 2019. The death of family members from waterborne diseases had decreased (except female members) in comparison to the previous flood in 2019. It is quite evident that the early warning message had enabled the males to take early actions regarding relocation of the vulnerable
family members to higher grounds, relative’s houses, or to the shelters. The cash for work modality had also helped the community people to obtain a source of income by working for the embankment, roads, bamboo bridges, etc. Shelter renovations and upgradations reportedly encouraged the community people to evacuate faster. The average amount of loan taken by a treatment respondent and control respondent was found to have been Taka 20,194 and Taka 18,335 respectively. However, post flood loan burden was significantly less for the cash grant recipients (only 32% took loan after flood) as compared to other treatment groups (more than 50% took loan). The
cash grants are said to have helped the recipients address their basic needs during the flood and also helped them to some extent to repair their house and pay for livestock treatment after the flood. [70 pages] Read More...

SISTEMATIZACIÓN DE LA ESTRATEGIA DE COMUNICACIÓN

Contribuir al fortalecimiento de un entorno protector para la población migrante venezolana que se encuentre en situación de vulnerabilidad

PROTECCIÓN: Las personas refugiadas y migrantes y solicitantes de asilo más vulnerables, especialmente, las mujeres y adolescentes que están expuestos a violaciones de derechos, incluida la trata de personas y la violencia basada en género, tienen un mayor acceso a servicios especializados de respuesta y prevención de protección

SALUD Y SALUD MENTAL: Las personas refugiadas, migrantes y solicitantes de asilo más vulnerables que están expuestas a la violencia basada en género y/o trata de personas tienen mayor acceso a la atención psicosocial y la atención de salud mental adaptada Read More...

ASHAR Alo Project (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience)

ASHAR Alo (Action for Supporting the Host Communities: Adaptation and Resilience), meaning ‘Light of Hope’ in Bangla.
The project activities are focused on Jaliyapalong, Haldiapalang,Ratna Palong, PalongKhali union of Ukhiya Upzila and Dakshin Mithachari and Chakmarkul union of Ramu Upazila. CARE aims to strengthen host communities' resilience by enhancing community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR), upgrading infrastructure, and providing livelihoods opportunities across shelter, settlement, and WASH sectors. The project also responds to the urgent protection and gender-based violence needs in the host community. Activities are being undertaken in collaboration with government and community stakeholders and UN and NGO actors.
Cox’s Bazar is amongst the poorest districts of Bangladesh. In Ukhia, 33% of people live below the poverty line, and 17% below extreme poverty. This is linked to the region's poor land quality and high risk of natural disaster. Since the Myanmar refugee influx in the fall of 2017, over 902,984 refugees or 201,150 households (HH)s have settled in Ukhiya, and Teknaf.1 Despite limited resources, the local host community population welcomed the arriving refugees during the fall of 2017, sharing food, shelter, and supplies. However, the refugees’ extended presence has strained the community’s already scarce resources. Within the sub-region, Ukhia and Teknaf have been particularly affected, with 336,000 residents directly impacted by the refugee influx,2 leading to a deterioration of relations between these host community members and the refugees.
The region is highly prone to natural disasters; it experiences regular cyclones, floods, and landslides with triple global average precipitation3. Both individual homes and community shelters are weak and in disrepair. Over 40% of households do not meet Sphere standards; they are overcrowded, fragile and highly susceptible to damage and destruction by strong winds, rain, and flooding4. Land degradation, including the daily removal of over 700 metric tons of firewood from the area, has led to a loss of topsoil, coupled with the heightened risk of flash flooding, which has increased the potential destruction5. The accumulation of improperly disposed waste and poor pre-existing drainage systems aggravate these risks and increase the likelihood of damage to host communities6. Furthermore, community response plans and structures are ill-equipped to safeguard or offer substantive protection. [19 pages] Read More...

HYGIENE AND BEHAVIOUR CHANGE COALITION (HBCC)

CARE International in UK secured funding from Unilever-DFID to implement a Hygiene and Behavior Change Coalition (HBCC) project. The project aimed to support communities respond to the Covid-19 pandemic through a multi pronged approach. CARE International implemented an extensive mass media, digital and interpersonal hygiene promotion information and messaging campaign in communities and institutions supported by the provision of water supply and handwashing kits and infrastructure as well as relevant PPE, as per context.

In Zimbabwe, the project was implemented in four provinces of Manicaland (Buhera & Mutare districts), Masvingo (Zaka & Chivi districts), Midlands (Zvishavane & Mberengwa districts) and Mashonaland West (Norton district) over a period of one year. The aim of the project was to minimize the transmission of and harmful impact of COVID-19 by delivering inclusive and interactive gender responsive mass media and digital communications, supported by product availability and community interventions that improve personal and environmental hygiene practices, and reduce stigma and discrimination. As a culmination of the project led to this independent endline review of the outcomes and impacts of the project. Read More...

WADAANA (Prosperity) TDP returnee families in NWTD have access to improve WASH agriculture and food security. Tehsil Mir Ali & Miran shah North Waziristan Tribal District

Since 2008, the tribal districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa have experienced large population displacements causing instability and exacerbating vulnerabilities of the local communities. In order to improve resilience, critical humanitarian assistance provided to the returnee Temporarily Displaced Persons (TDP) in NWTD. The project was implemented by CARE international in Pakistan (CIP) with the funding from the Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA) under the title “WADAANA” through its local partner, Peace and Development Organization (PADO).

CIP through its local partner rehabilitated (03) drinking water supply schemes, construction of 140 transitional latrines in the target communities, distribution of 250 hygiene kits to most vulnerable women beneficiaries, 200 awareness sessions and radio campaign for hygiene promotion coupled with PHAST (Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation) approach, rehabilitation of 5 irrigation channels to improve access to water of the farmers in the target area, provided 550 poultry package and 500 kitchen gardening kits to improve livelihood of the female in targeted communities.

Upon successful implementation, CIP conducted Post Distribution Monitoring (PDM) study in both Tehsils of Miran Shah & Mir Ali for poultry, kitchen gardening and hygiene kits. The study was conducted to get beneficiaries feedback about the utilization of poultry, kitchen gardening and hygiene kits distribution process, beneficiaries’ selection criteria, relevance, satisfaction with quality and quantity of Packages items, feedback and complaint response mechanism. A total of 66 recipients of Poultry Packages, Kitchen Gardening and hygiene kits were interviewed taking 5% as sample of the total distribution.
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START Fund Distributions In Pakistan

The activities of the START Fund were designed in lieu of the communities' needs identified by the existing field staff monitoring flood situation and working in Muzaffargarh. As part of the activities, medical supplies were given to target beneficiaries and hygiene promotion sessions were conducted to inform the communities of the risk and prevention measures from COVID-19, and water borne diseases
CARE International in Pakistan conducted post distribution monitoring study with 10 participants (90% female and 10% male) in UC Rang Pur of District Muzaffargarh. The study was conducted to get beneficiaries feedback. satisfaction about the distribution, familiarity with feedback & complaint response mechanism, and COVID-19 information and compliance.
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Post Distribution Monitoring study in selected union councils of district Pishin with the beneficiaries of food package & hygiene kit during COVID-19

CARE international in Pakistan conducted post distribution monitoring study in selected union councils of district Pishin with the beneficiaries of food package& hygiene kit. The study was conducted to get beneficiary’s feedback on utilization of food package & hygiene kit, distribution process, beneficiaries’ selection criteria, relevance, satisfaction about quality and quantity of kit items, feedback and complaint response mechanism, and COVID-19 information/risk communication.
CIP provided support to the vulnerable community of district Pishin, who were affected due to lock down and spread of COVID-19 pandemic. The support was focused to provide immediate needs such as food package and hygiene kits to reduce the financial burden on the selected beneficiaries and to increase their resilience to prevent COVID-19.
PDM Study was conducted with beneficiaries of eleven (11) villages of Union Council (UC) Bostan, UC Walma, UC Ghaizh. Total 60 recipients of food package & hygiene kit were interviewed considering 5% as a sample out of the total distribution. [20 pages] Read More...

PESHAWAR Khyber Pakhtoonkhwa

CARE international in Pakistan conducted Post distribution monitoring study in selected union councils of district Peshawar with beneficiaries of food package& Hygiene Kit. The study was conducted to get beneficiaries feedback about the utilization of food package & Hygiene Kit, distribution process, beneficiaries’ selection criteria, relevance, satisfaction about quality and quantity of kit items, feedback and complaint response mechanism, and COVID-19 information/risk communication.

CIP provided response to vulnerable community of district Peshawar, affected due to spread of COVID-19 pandemic. The project response was targeted to provide immediate need assistance such as food package and hygiene kits to reduce the financial burden on the selected beneficiaries and to increase their resilience to prevent COVID-19.

PDM Study was conducted in four Union Councils Pishtakhara, Nahaqi, Gullbela and Tehkal to cover maximum number of project beneficiaries. Total 100 recipients of food package & Hygiene Kit were interviewed taking 2.5% as sample of the total distribution. [19 pages]
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Strengthening government sector health system and providing immediate emergency response to curtail outbreak of COVID-19 across Pakistan in Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces

CARE international in Pakistan implementing project “Strengthening government sector health system and providing immediate emergency response to curtail outbreak of COVID-19 across Pakistan in Punjab, Sindh, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces” in five district of Pakistan. The project aimed to Reduction of the primary and secondary impacts of COVID-19 through access to WASH facilities and health for 1,235,394 vulnerable people in 14 districts across Pakistan (Sindh, Punjab, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Baluchistan provinces). Another objective of the project was to improve access of soap to meet hygienic needs of community households. In this regard a package of hand washing soap and detergent powder was provided to 3011 households in five districts of Pakistan. [21 pages] Read More...

HYGIENE AND BEHAVIOR CHANGE COALITION (HBCC) PROJECT END-LINE EVALUATION

The Covid-19 pandemic remains a global concern, it has affected all social-economic spheres of life around the world. People have and continue to lose life. The global economies continue to decline. Countries and the development partners continue to spread millions of dollars in educating people on dangers, control and prevention of the Covid-19 pandemic. Multiple barriers can affect efforts to minimize transmission and harmful impacts of health emergencies; this is not different for COVID-19. The barriers vary from inadequate knowledge at individual and community levels and limited access to hygiene/WASH facilities among others. With such limitations, the risk of contracting Covid-19 increases. As part of Rwanda’s Covid-19 response plan, CARE Rwanda designed and implemented HBCC project over the period of 1 year (July 2020-July 2021). (54 pages) Read More...

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