Bangladesh

Vulnerability to HIV & AIDS: A social Research on Cross Border Mobile Population from Bangladesh to India

There are a growing number of people migrating between Bangladesh, Nepal and India. Mobility has long been linked with heightened vulnerability to HIV & AIDS. While overall
HIV prevalence is low in Bangladesh and Nepal, there is a growing concern that vulnerable mobile populations are forming a bridge between high prevalence areas of India and low prevalence areas in Bangladesh and Nepal. Enhancing Mobile Populations’ Access to HIV & AIDS Services Information and Support (EMPHASIS) is a regional program being implemented by CARE Bangladesh, CARE India and CARE Nepal and led by CARE International UK (CIUK) to reduce AIDS related vulnerabilities among mobile populations crossing the borders of Bangladesh and Nepal into India. This 5-year (August 2009 – July 2014) program, is funded by the Big Lottery Fund (BIG) of United Kingdom.

Baseline Research on cross border migration was initiated to understand the drivers of mobility, access to services for migrants at source and destination, and to understand the risk and vulnerabilities associated with migration and HIV & AIDS. The study was conducted using quantitative methods and a separate qualitative study was conducted to enhance and complement the quantitative data. [57 Pages] Read More...

Rapid Assessment on COVID-19 Vaccine Uptake by Urban Marginalised Population in Bangladesh

As of 31 March 2021, there have been 127,877,462 confirmed cases of COVID-19 worldwide, including 2,796,561 deaths in 223 countries as reported by WHO. Bangladesh had 6,11,295 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 9,406 confirmed deaths till the end of March 2021. In response to this situation, the administration of the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine officially started on 7 February 2021 in the national hospitals and health complexes all over Bangladesh. Despite acute demand for the vaccine, a great deal of misinformation and misconception is also apparent among general people. With the ongoing vaccine administration, it is very important to understand community acceptance of COVID-19 vaccinations.
People’s knowledge, attitudes and perceptions towards COVID-19 are of utmost importance for Government and policymakers to address all barriers to vaccine uptake and ensuring that everyone has access to vaccine. With these contexts, this survey aims to identify the overall COVID-19 vaccination perceptions among the urban marginalized population in Bangladesh based on three main objectives:
 Understanding the knowledge and practice related to COVID-19 prevention
 Assessing the knowledge and perspective regarding COVID-19 vaccination
program
 To know the status of vaccine uptake among marginalized population
The urban marginalized population were purposively selected, as they are more likely to be unaccounted for or have the least access to the COVID-19 vaccine administration process. In this survey, researchers captured only the population that are direct service recipient of the Urban Health Programme (garment workers and people who inject drug) and other groups who are available around the catchment areas of the service centres of the facilities. Read More...

Baseline Study on “Improving lives of Rohingya refugees and host community members in Bangladesh through sexual and reproductive healthcare integrated with gender-based violence prevention and response” Project

In response to the health and protection needs of the Rohingya refugees and the host communities in Cox ́s Bazar, CARE is implementing the project “Improving lives of Rohingya refugees and host community members in Bangladesh through sexual and reproductive healthcare integrated with gender-based violence prevention and response” with funding support by German Federal Foreign Office. This is a two year project targeting Rohingya refuges of camp 11, 12, 15 and 16 and vulnerable host communities of Jaliapalong union for GBV and SRH services.
To achieve improved sexual and reproductive health, GBV survivor support and protection from GBV of Rohingya Refugees in Cox ́s Bazar in Bangladesh, this project works across three outcomes. Firstly general and sexual and reproductive (SRH) health services will be provided through decetralised health centers which will rove around the target areas to provide services to people at their doorsteps. Improved Menstrual Hygiene management (MHM) is the second outcome of this project. There is an absence of space for washing and drying menstrual hyiene materials, leading women and girls to risk their health by drying their materials indoors. Through this project, therefore, two MHM spaces will be constructed next to CARE’s existing women and girls’ safe spaces (WGSS) in camps 12 and 16. The construction will be accompanied with training to ensure that the spaces are used appropriate. The third project outcome focuses on prevention of and response to gender-based violence. Services include psychosocial counselling, referral of GBV survivors, life-skills training, information and awareness-raising and recreational activities. These activities are complemented by community outreach activities, conducted through Rohingya volunteers, to ensure that the communities know about and can access the WGSS, and challenging harmful social norms associated with GBV. Community outreach will take place in camps 12 and 16 amongst refugee populations.
This report is 22 pages long. Read More...

Joint Action for Nutrition Outcome (JANO) Project Annual Evaluation

Second year evaluation. Joint Action for Nutrition Outcome (JANO) project aims at reducing malnutrition and addressing nutritional needs of pregnant and lactating women including adolescents. JANO also focuses on capacity building of multiple levels of government bodies, especially enhancing capacities of Nutrition Committees (NC) at the upazila and district levels in terms of developing nutritional plans, budget and effective supervision. Funded by the European Union (EU) and implemented by CARE, Plan International, including Eco Social Development Organization (ESDO). JANO collaborated with the Government of Bangladesh (GoB) in implementing the National Plan of Action for Nutrition (NPAN)-2) at the local, regional, and national levels selected all 65 unions of the seven most vulnerable upazilas of Rangpur and Nilphamari (with a stunting rate of 42.1%) were selected for this project. These include Gangachara, Kaunia, Taraganj, Domar, Jaldhaka, Kishorgonj and Nilphamari Sadar. [101 pages]. Read More...

Action for Supporting Host Community Adaptation & Resilience ASHAR Alo Yearly Review 2020

As a multi-year project, mid-term review/year-end assessment has been commissioned to assess relevancy of design, approach and methodology, implementation strategy, efficiency and effectiveness of actions, effects of actions on community people etc. This is an internal assessment to improve the project. The ASHAR Alo project targets host communities located outside of the refugee camps, consolidating programmatic gains through OFDA funding for sustainable development in the area. The project activities are focused on Jaliyapalong, and Palongkhali. CARE aims to strengthen host communities' resilience, by enhancing community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR), upgrading infrastructure and providing livelihoods opportunities, across shelter, settlement and WASH sectors. The project will also respond to the urgent protection and gender-based violence needs in the host community. Activities are being undertaken in collaboration with government and community stakeholders, as well as UN and NGO actors.

The assessment was conducted in September 2020 applying both quantitative and qualitative tools and approaches. The samples were drawn purposively. Considering the COVID-19 situation, the short sample size was determined following most common statistical formulae. Throughout the study, it follows USAID compliance and directives. It covers a total of 228 respondent’s households from 4 WARDs under Jaliyapalong Union in Ukhiya Upazailla, Cox’s Bazar district. Quantitative Data collection has been conducted with Tablets using KoBo. [41 pages].
Read More...

2nd RAPID ANALYSIS How are female garment factory workers during COVID-19

CARE Bangladesh has conducted the mobile based 1st Rapid Analysis in April’20 to understand COVID-19 impacts on lives and livelihoods of female factory workers. That study reveals, 25% doesn’t know protection measures, 35% feels uncertain about salary, 35% faced food shortage, 28% were getting fear to loose job and 91% were suffering from anxiety. 2nd Rapid Analysis is a follow-up survey on the same target group keeping the same objective, looking into more deep-dive issues. Read More...

AN INTERSECTIONAL ANALYSIS OF GENDER AMONGST ROHINGYA REFUGEES AND HOST COMMUNITIES IN COX’S BAZAR

The Rohingya ethnic minority population in Myanmar have been persecuted over generations and are denied of their fundamental human rights. Violence, discrimination and persecution in Myanmar have eventually led the stateless Rohingya people to flee
to Bangladesh from Rakhine State in successive waves over the last four decades. Since August 2017, an estimated 745,000 Rohingya refugees arrived in Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, reaching the total number of 914,998 people and constituting the largest refugee camp
in the world. The rapid and sizable influx of Rohingya refugees now outnumbers locals nearly three to one in the two sub-districts, Ukhiya and Teknaf, where refugees and the subsequent humanitarian response have had an impact on the host community.
This inter-agency research is commissioned by ActionAid in collaboration with UNHCR and CARE Bangladesh to investigate how age, gender and diversity issues are addressed in the humanitarian response amongst Rohingya refugees and the host communities. The
quantitative and qualitative data were collected from 03 December 2019 to 07 January 2020. This transdisciplinary research aims to fill a significant gap by providing a critical analysis of the present status of gender relations addressed in humanitarian response, taking into consideration the intersectionality among specific needs based on age, gender and other diversity factors contributing to a person or group’s vulnerability.
This study was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. Due to the change in context, it has now become even more imperative to adapt existing mechanisms within the ongoing response, especially the need for increased Age, Gender and Diversity (AGD) analysis and monitoring of vulnerabilities. While COVID-19 was not a factor in this report, the recommendations of this report need to be addressed and implemented with the changing context in mind. Read More...

IN THE SHADOWS OF THE PANDEMIC: THE GENDERED IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON ROHINGYA AND HOST COMMUNITIES

Since the onset of global COVID-19 pandemic in December, Bangladesh has been in a state of high alert. The first confirmed case of COVID-19 in Bangladesh was recorded on 8 March 2020. By 26 March, containment measures were implemented, impacting an already vulnerable population. As of 13 September there have been 337,520 total cases, with 4,401 in Cox’s Bazar and 179 across all 34 refugee camps. However, it is highly likely that these low case numbers are more indicative of negligible testing than of the actual
spread of the virus; the true incidence of the disease is unknown. COVID-19 and the accompanying containment measures have had a significant impact on women, girls, men and boys, including female sex workers, transgender persons and people with disabilities,
across all camps, exacerbating existing conditions, such as overcrowding, movement across hilly terrain, uneven access to a limited number of WASH and health facilities and inadequate access to protection and hygiene resources. This has hindered the ability of refugees to take the necessary preventive measures to limit infections. The host community faces similar difficulties, and, moreover, the containment measures had an adverse economic impact on both host and refugee communities.
This Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) builds on the secondary data analysis done in May 2020 by the Gender Hub, UN Women, CARE and OXFAM. This RGA aims to answer the following research questions:
􀁹 How has COVID-19 impacted women, girls, men and boys and key vulnerable and marginalised groups’ ability to meet their basic needs and entitlements?
􀁹 What achievements made on gender equality and the empowerment of women, girls and LGBTQ+ groups are now at risk of being undone by COVID-19?
􀁹 What new or heightened protection and safety risks are arising from COVID-19?
􀁹 How can women, girls, men and boys, and key vulnerable and marginalised groups articipate and lead in the COVID-19 response?
The research was conducted using primary data collected in Rohingya and host communities in Cox’s Bazar between 15 June and 9 July 2020 to understand the impact COVID-19 has had on age, gender and other social characteristics, and to analyse how the socio-cultural context helps or hinders people’s ability to cope with the crisis. The purpose is to generate evidence to support the design of gender-responsive intervention/strategies for the COVID-19 response in Cox’s Bazar that can be used for advocacy and fundraising purposes. Read More...

The Double Day: Exploring unpaid work and care for female garment workers in Bangladesh

The UK Government funded Work and Opportunities for Women (WOW) Programme is a five-year initiative to enhance the economic empowerment of 300,000 women working in global value chains by 2022. WOW is delivered by a consortium comprised of BSR, CARE International, the University of Manchester, and Social Development Direct, and led by PwC.

WOW’s approach to reaching women workers is through partnerships with multinational companies and business initiatives to improve women’s participation in their supply chains. One such partnership is with a fashion retailer who expressed an interest in learning more about the unpaid care that female garment workers in their supply chains carry out—recognising it as a major barrier to women’s economic participation.

The WOW alliance entered into a collaborative partnership with the company to undertake original primary research into the unpaid work and care burden facing female garment workers in Bangladesh.
The research has been collated into an external report – The Double Day – launched in July 2020 by the WOW Alliance.
Read More...

Women and Girls Safe Spaces in Rohingya Camps

As the Rohingya Response of Bangladesh nears the two-year mark, the response has evolved from immediate emergency life-saving provisions to other supports (protection, health, nutrition etc). One aspect of this crisis is that majority are women and children (52% women & girls, 55% children under 18)(Rohingya Response Gender Analysis, Lulia, Mita et al, 2018) . Thus, responses specific to needs of women and girls are of crucial importance. At the heart of this are Women and Girls’ Safe Space (WGSS) locally called shantikhana (Center of Peace). As UNFPA defines:
“A safe space is a formal or informal place where women and girls feel physically and emotionally safe. The term ‘safe,’ in the present context, refers to the absence of trauma, excessive stress, violence (or fear of violence), or abuse. It is a space where women and girls, being the intended beneficiaries, feel comfortable and enjoy the freedom to express themselves without the fear of judgment or harm.”
CARE Bangladesh conducted an inter-agency study that analyzes collective experience of organizations serving survivors of GBV and other Rohingya women visiting WGSS to understand key successes, good practice, challenges and way-forward. Read More...

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