Garment Workers

Rapid Assessment on Inclusion Environment of Persons with Disabilities in Selected Garment Factories in Cambodia

Persons with disabilities are among the most vulnerable in Cambodia and have been particularly disadvantaged by the socioeconomic impact of COVID-19 and the response to the pandemic. As part of the GIZ funded project “Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Garment Workers with disabilities during COVID19 and beyond”, implemented by CARE International in Cambodia in partnership with ADD International Cambodia, a rapid assessment was conducted from March to May 2022. The purpose of the assessment was to assess garment factories’ current practice related to Gender Equality, Disability and Social Inclusion and to identify supportive aspects as well as access and inclusion issues related to employment situation of garment factory workers with disabilities. The assessment used participatory multi-stakeholder rights-based approaches to gather qualitative information from 30 different stakeholders, including 16 garment workers with disabilities, 5 garment factory human resource managers as well as 9 representatives from government institutions, NGOs/CSOs, UN agencies and the private sector, supplemented by a literature review and dissemination workshop. Read More...

Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID-19 – Phase 2

This is the End of Project Evaluation Report for the Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID19 – Phase 2 (SER) Project which was implemented in Phnom Penh, Kandal and Kampong Speu provinces. The Project commenced in July 2021 and concluded in February 2022. The goal of the project was to strengthen the economic resilience of female garment workers who are socially and economically marginalized in Cambodia to cope with the negative impacts of COVID-19. In order to conduct the evaluation, data was collected through a comprehensive literature review and fieldwork. The literature review was conducted reviewing reports and documents from the SER Project and also other relevant external publications. The evaluation interviewed 400 people and was conducted in January 2022. Read More...

Study on Labour and Market Analysis Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID19

CARE is implementing the “Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID-19--Phase2” project funded by the German Agency for International Cooperation (GIZ). The project aims to strengthen the economic resilience of female garment workers in Cambodia and Vietnam to cope with the negative impacts of COVID-19. As part of this project, a labor market assessment for female factory workers was carried out with the following objectives:

1. To identify short-medium term market trends and opportunities, as this is the most critical information for supporting workers to make informed decisions about their livelihoods in 2021 and onwards.

2. To identify market opportunities for small business development in the communities for workers who live in Phnom Penh, Kandal, and Kampong Speu provinces. Read More...

Garment workers during the pandemic: The need and experience of finding alternative livelihoods

Along with the economy ravaged by the epidemic, the life of workers in Vietnam, especially garment workers, faces great difficulties. Millions of jobs have been affected, and some hundred thousand people have lost their income and in turn, livelihoods. It is the beginning of a precarious situation
with no way out. This report was made to understand the specific needs of the target group that the Worker support platform project is targeting, with the goal of accurately meeting their need to find alternative jobs, provided such a job matching platform is unprecedented. Read More...

ASSESSMENT OF CURRENT EMPLOYMENT STATUS AND NEEDS FOR IMPROVING PROFESSIONAL COMPETENCY OF FEMALE GARMENT WORKERS

This study aimed to identify difficulties that female garment workers were facing during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as their need to improve professional knowledge and skills, to further understand their work and their job-changing desires. This information will lay the basis for the implementation of training programs and job matching platforms targeting female garment workers in the southern cities/provinces such as Dong Nai, Hau Giang provinces, and HCMC. Read More...

Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID19 – Phase 2

This is the End of Project Evaluation Report for the Strengthening the Economic Resilience of Female Garment Workers during COVID19 – Phase 2 (SER) Project which was implemented in Phnom Penh, Kandal and Kampong Speu provinces. The Project commenced in July 2021 and concluded in February 2022. The goal of the project was to strengthen the economic resilience of female garment workers who are socially and economically marginalized in Cambodia to cope with the negative impacts of COVID-19. In order to conduct the evaluation, data was collected through a comprehensive literature review and fieldwork. The literature review was conducted reviewing reports and documents from the SER Project and also other relevant external publications. The evaluation interviewed 400 people and was conducted in January 2022.
• It should be noted that the project was not wholly a humanitarian type intervention project, which tend to have a short implementation period, rather the project had knowledge, capacity and resilience training elements which require a longer timeframe to implement. For this reason, as well as the delay to the start of the project and the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic, project staff were faced with a high workload within a challenging environment. Specifically, a longer time period would have given more time to prepare for project interventions such as the training, baseline and rapid situation assessment of the labour market. With more time the baseline and rapid situation assessment of the labour market could have been used to better tailor and inform the development of the training materials and curriculum.
• The focus on social protections in the project interventions was a relative new topic especially for factory workers, who are mostly only aware of the NSSF and the IDPoor. As highlighted as an unexpected result of the project, many project participants directing enquiries to local authorities about social protections. While local authorities are aware of social protections in general, they do not have detailed knowledge, especially since many social protections are administered at the national level and not at the village level. Therefore, more cooperation with local authorities should have been sought in order to prepare the local authorities for this situation.
• The delay in the signing the project’s administrative contract, caused the project to miss opportunities to use the findings of the baseline survey and the rapid situation assessment of the labour market to better inform the development of the project’s training activities.
• The evaluation found that while knowledge of GBV improved, the same was not the case for sexual harassment. Indeed, respondents who could not identify sexual harassment increased from 32% (114/356) at the baseline to 38% (139/362) at the endline. Project staff reported that this was not an unexpected finding as CARE’s previous sexual harassment projects had encountered similar such resistance to changing attitudes.
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Migrant Women Mini-survey on Sexual Harassment Aung Myin Hmu Project: Industry Solutions for Safe Employment

Introduction
This AMH project aims to provide safe work opportunities for migrant women by working with the private sector and the government to provide in demand vocational training and job matching while ensuring that women can access appropriate social and protection services.
Objectives
The study follows up with the project measurement framework to simplify and better visualize the below project indicators.
1) HLO2.2 % of migrant women who report experiencing discrimination and abuse in public and/or at the workplace
2) HLO 2.4 % of women who report feeling safer due to SH awareness activities and existence of complaint mechanism
3) IO 2.2.3 % of women report experiencing sexual harassment at their workplace
Read More...

Enhancing Women’s Voice to STOP Sexual Harassment Final Evaluation – Myanmar

The Enhancing Women’s Voice to Stop Sexual Harassment project (STOP), an initiative of CARE Australia, has been working since 2017 to prevent and address the under-reported problem of sexual harassment (SH) in mainland Southeast Asia’s garment sector.
At the time of writing, STOP is the only initiative that addresses this issue on a multi-country scale within the sub-region. Operating across a pool of garment factories in four Mekong countries—Cambodia, Lao PDR1, Myanmar and Vietnam—STOP aims to enhance women’s voice and economic rights at both the national and factory levels. Based on a socio-ecological model of violence prevention, CARE Country Offices (COs) are working with participating factories to create workplaces where female workers feel safe and experience less SH through the implementation of standardised SH reporting mechanisms and rigorous training programs. Supported by CARE Regional staff, each CARE CO engages with relevant country, regional and international stakeholders to strengthen the national regulatory environment to promote laws, policies and mechanisms to address SH in the workplace.
In 2018, CARE Australia commissioned a consortium of researchers from UNSW Sydney and UNSW Canberra to undertake an independent evaluation the STOP project and provide a separate Social Impact Assessment (SIA) focused on Cambodia STOP as the particular case study. It is important to note that the SIA is intended to complement the findings of the Final Evaluation (FE) of the STOP, as implemented in the other three project sites. In this way, the SIA and the Final Evaluation should be read as two parts of a single whole.
The STOP project is evidence-based. This strength of evidence is reflected in the rapid review of evidence first published by CARE (Campbell and Chinnery 2018) in November 2018, which provides a comprehensive discussion of how to prevent and respond to SH in the workplace. The continued inclusion of evidence into the project cycle ensures that the STOP project is built on current best practice.
This report provides an overview of Final Evaluation findings of the full STOP project and evaluation findings relating to the STOP project in Myanmar. Read More...

Worker Wellbeing Project in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Vietnam Endline Evaluation

This endline evaluation was conducted to assess change and impact resulting from the Worker Wellbeing Project in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Vietnam. It was carried out independently by Rapid Asia to conduct an endline evaluation of the Worker Well-Being Project to provide a final report to the donor, capture details on impact and analyse lessons learned to be applied to future programming. The purpose of the Worker Wellbeing Project is to improve wellbeing for garment workers through access to dignified working conditions, legal and social protections and gender-equitable relationships. Findings from the evaluation will also be used to learn from and develop the Dignified Work portfolio and promote women's economic justice worldwide.

This evaluation sought to identify the extent to which the project achieved meaningful change in women workers’ lives both at home, community and in the workplace through the activities in each country by identifying outcomes from project activities and outputs to understand linkages between those outcomes and the projects outputs.

Key Findings
The EKATA engagement model
The EKATA model proved to be highly successful in greatly enacting change for women garment workers in the factories and at home. Women workers consistently highlighted the usefulness of the training had on their daily lives. Through the training, the women learnt how to reclaim those voices and negotiate at work for better conditions.
Engagement with men
Recognising the crucial role that men play in delivering gender-transformative impac by engaging them as stakeholders proved to be successful. Men were found to be receptive in recognising gender as a social construct, which then formed the basis for understanding the value of women and why domestic responsibilities should be shared and that sexual harassment of women is unacceptable.
Duty bearers’ responsiveness
Garment factory management staff believed they could see not only the benefit of the project but also an improvement in the conditions of the women workers, which they recognised as having a positive impact on their business. Employers appeared to welcome women garment workers raising their concerns, mainly due to the workers' improved communication skills.
Outcomes and their relation to activities
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Beneficiaries of EKATA training found the sessions on financial management, gender equality, labour rights, leadership and communication the most valuable and impactful in their daily lives. It was found however, that such training alone would not be enough to deliver true impact. Evidence demonstrated that establishing committees from where women can launch collective demands was a significant trigger to exercising women’s rights.
Project sustainability
There is great potential for women recognising labour violations and unfair practices, gender inequality, and the capacity to take action without a considerable reliance on outside support. Sustainability is also underpinned by network activities, namely the linking of community worker association to local federations and trade unions and local service providers. Read More...

Bersama Menuju Keadilan (BUKA) or Towards Fairness Together SELF-EVALUATION REPORT

Bersama Menuju Keadilan (BUKA) or Towards Fairness Together is a Yayasan Care Peduli (CARE) project which was implemented in West Java from July 2018 to October 2020.1 The project was implemented in Sukabumi and Bandung districts and was implemented by CARE and the Trade Union Rights Center (TURC). The project partnered with 7 trade unions in 21 factories across the two districts.
The goal of the project was to improve working conditions in garment factories in West Java through evidence-based negotiation and collective bargaining between unions and factory management using publicly available data. The project aimed to improve the capabilities of women garment workers and their unions to collect, analyse and use publicly available data in negotiation and collective bargaining with factories, resulting in particular in more gender-responsive Collective Bargaining Agreements (CBA). The project was designed on the assumption that publicly-available data could be used as the basis for evidence-based negotiation and bargaining between unions and factories, and that this form of evidence-based bargaining based on public data would lead to more successful bargaining and improved working conditions. The project also aimed to ensure that the evidence-base, data and lessons learned from the project became accessible to the wider labour movement and civil society in Indonesia.
An emphasis on gender justice was mainstreamed within the project objective, outcomes and activities. Women constitute the majority of the garment sector workforce in Indonesia and they are disproportionately impacted by worker’s rights abuses and face differential impacts on the basis of their gender. Women are also inadequately represented within union leadership and in collective bargaining, resulting in their voices and experiences not being reflected in the outcomes of bargaining. The project prioritised building the capabilities of women union members in particular on data and bargaining skills, encouraging the presence of women within negotiation and bargaining teams, developing a peer network of women leaders, strengthening union understanding and identification of the disproportionate and differentiated impacts of poor working conditions on women, and supporting the agreement of CBAs which are more responsive to those realities. Read More...

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