Food Security

AN ASSESSMENT OF THE GENDERED EFFECTS OF THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC ON HOUSEHOLDS

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is arguably one of the biggest pandemics to hit the world in recent times. It began in Wuhan, China and within a span of a few months took a toll on all the countries. A pandemic of such magnitude was witnessed when the 1918 flue pandemic started in Europe, spreading to United States of America, Asia and later to the rest of the world. Globally, the pandemic has affected the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Governments across the world, including Kenya, have taken up different containment measures including introduction of economic stimulus programs to cushion women and men, girls and boys and the economy at large, from the devastating effects of the pandemic. In Kenya, the pandemic and its associated containment measures resulted in unprecedented effects on the country’s economic and social outcomes such as Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and people’s well-being with a disproportionate burden falling on women and girls. This report analyses the gendered socio-economic effects of COVID-19 and provides policy recommendations that will guide responses, interventions and recovery plans for COVID-19 in Kenya. Specifically, the report assesses the effect of COVID-19 on: incomes including remittances; food security; education; unpaid care and domestic work; access to healthcare services; access to sexual and reproductive health services; access to social protection; access to water and sanitation services; gender-based violence (GBV) due to restrictions associated with COVID-19, and the prevention and response mechanisms. The analysis in this report is informed by primary data collected from a sample of 2,587 individuals from all the 47 counties in Kenya between 4th August and 8th September 2020 using Computer Assisted Telephonic Interviews (CATI). Due to the sensitivity of GBV information and the need to uphold the privacy of respondents in the survey, a separate SMS-based survey was conducted. Two questionnaires were administered to a sample of 2,482 individuals drawn across all the 47 counties in Kenya. The same individuals were interviewed at different times with the duration of each interview lasting not longer than 20 minutes. A total of 34 Key Informant Interviews (KIIs), that is 19 women and 15 men, were conducted from both State and non-State actors to complement and triangulate the findings from the individual/ household data while drawing more insights on the effects and recovery plans from the pandemic. Read More...

Endline Survey of Cocoa Sustainability Initiative (CSI) II

This report is on the consultancy assignment to conduct an end line survey of Cocoa Sustainability Initiative (CSI II), a partnership between CARE International and General Mills Foundation (GMI). A team of consultants from GIMPA Consultancy and Innovation Directorate (GCID), conducted the survey within the period of four weeks in December 2020 across twenty communities in the Asikuma Odoben Brakwa District.

The project is targeted at improving the livelihoods of individuals in cocoa-growing communities and optimizing cocoa production through climate change adaptation. The initiative which started in 2017 and ended in August, 2020 is aimed at promoting gender equity, building farmer resilience to mitigate the impact of climate change and strengthen local capacity to initiate and own the process of development in cocoa-growing communities.

Some major significant change stories include increased yields, high adoption of good agricultural practices, improved access to financial service and improved financial decision making by women. [66 Pages] Read More...

Lesson Learned from the construction of a 1800m3 capacity gabion in Wadi Hassan Valley, Khanfer district, Aden governorate under Food for Assets (FFA) Project

What is the specific situation that the lesson learned relates to?
It is about this asset that serves and protects more than 5,000 acres of agricultural land from drought and adds value in different aspects such as increasing underground water level of Abyan and Aden, as such, leading to diversified livelihood options e.g. livestock rearing and bee farming.

How is this impacted by the local context/environment/culture?
The agricultural sector is one of the most important economic sectors in Abyan governorate, and the main source of income for most of the people, as many of them are engaged in agriculture activities. Abyan governorate is famous for its agricultural valleys including Wadi Banna, Wadi Hassan, Wadi Delta Abyan, Delta Ahour.

Because of previous conflicts and wars that occurred in Abyan, the irrigation system was destroyed and was subjected to destruction and neglect. The Abyan Delta agricultural area located in the districts of Zanzibar and Khanfar in Abyan governorate experienced high flow of water from seasonal rainfall, however, the flow of water irrigated a small part of agricultural areas in Khanfar and Zanzibar districts. The bulk of these flood water went into to the sea, as well as causing damages such as eroding farmers' lands, damaging roads, damaging irrigation channels, bridges, and even the destruction of homes that affected some villages and population centres.

After the failure of the dam project in Wadi Hassan in year 1992, many irrigation channels, including Hussein Canal, were deprived of floodwater, which led to the drought of agricultural lands, in the process, depriving more than 2000 families of their main source of income. Hussein Canal covers more than 5000 Hectares of agricultural land that has been deprived for more than ten years of seasonal floods, which is its main source of irrigation by torrents.

In this project, five villages (Al-Dergag, Al-Komblyah, Maykalan, Kadmat Al-Saeed qasem and Obar Otman) that are inter-connected as a sub-district were targeted and benefited from the floodwater that came through the Hussein Canal. Based on the community leaders and irrigation office’s request, a 1800m3 capacity Gabion (360 inter-connected sub-gabions each with size 5m length X 1m depth X 1m breadth) covering a distance of 105 meters was constructed in Wadi Hassan to bring water from the valley to Hussein main channel for irrigation for villager’s lands by floods and torrents water. [5 Pages]
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CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Um Rakuba Camp and Tunaydbah Settlement, Eastern Sudan April 2021

Since 9 November 2020, Ethiopian and Eritrean asylum seekers have been arriving in Eastern Sudan, fleeing a military escalation in the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. Eastern Sudan is facing multiple challenges including high levels of food insecurity, flood recovery, increased militarisation on the Sudan and Ethiopia border, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic and the impacts of mitigation and containment measures. As of 17th April (latest situation report), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the Government’s Commissioner for Refugees (COR) registered 62,850 individuals who have crossed the border into Eastern Sudan. It is estimated that 36% of the arrivals are female and 64% are male. Further estimations show that 27% of the arrivals are children (0-17years); out of which 8% are below 5 years. Elderly (+60years) comprise 4% and Adults (18-59 years) 69% of the arrivals. Of those who arrived, data as of January 2021, showed 15,056 are women and girls of reproductive age and 1,365 currently pregnant women. Primary data collection, through FGDs, KIIs and Individual Stories, took place between 16-18th February 2021, in Um Rakuba camp and Tunaydbah settlement.

RGA objectives were to:
• Better understand, the main needs, priorities and coping strategies of women, men, girls and boys,
as well as at-risk groups in Um Rakuba camp and Tunaydbah settlement
• Identify how CARE and the wider humanitarian community can adapt and design targeted services
and assistance to meet these needs, ensuring we do no harm. Read More...

McGovern-Dole Food Fore Education Program HATUTAN – Midline Evaluation

The HATUTAN program (Hahán ne’ebé Atu fó Tulun ho Nutrisaun no Edukasaun or Food to Support Nutrition and Education) is a five-year initiative to build a partnership between schools and communities in order to improve literacy, learning, healthy, and nutrition for children and adults in Timor-Leste. The program works in partnership with the Government of Timor-Leste and development stakeholders to address two strategic objectives: improved literacy of school-aged children and increased use of health, nutrition, and dietary practices. The HATUTAN program is funded by the U.S. government through the Foreign Agricultural Service of the United States Department of Agriculture under the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. The program is implemented by a consortium led by CARE International with Mercy Corps and WaterAid. The lead Timorese government partner is the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of State Administration, and Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.

To achieve these objectives, the program supports, among a variety of activities, the Government of Timor-Leste’s school feeding program (SFP) to fully operate in all basic education and preschools throughout the school year. Key project activities include strengthening and supplementing the government-sponsored SFP and building school capacity through trainings for teachers and administrators and provision of resource materials. Additionally, the HATUTAN program seeks to support farmers to boost the production of local produce to increase yields and help create sustainable sources of nutritious food for local schools. In addition to activities related to literacy and SFPs, HATUTAN seeks to conduct trainings related to nutrition, health, and other topics, and to promote gender equality and the reduction of gender-based violence.

This report presents the midline evaluation of the HATUTAN program, which began in early 2019. It is important to note that restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a substantial impact on program activities and target outputs and outcomes. In March 2020, HATUTAN field activities were halted, field offices were temporarily closed, and staff began to work from home due to a State of Emergency issued by the Government of Timor-Leste. This State of Emergency remains in effect to date, with varying levels of restriction on school activities, movement, and group gatherings. As a result, the HATUTAN program is behind schedule in terms of some major deliverables due to COVID-19. Additionally Read More...

Evaluation a mi-parcours du Programme d’Amenagement du Delta Interieur du Niger (PADIN-II)

The Development Program of the Inner Niger Delta (PADIN-II) is the result of a request from the National Directorate of Rural Engineering (DNGR, for the Ministry of Agriculture) to respond to the planning guidelines of the Program. of Sustainable Development of the Inner Niger Delta (PDD-DIN). PADIN-II is designed by the NGO CARE and the DNGR, with the involvement of members of the Regional Committee for the Orientation, Coordination and Monitoring of Development Actions (CROCSAD) of the Mopti Region. This five-year program (2013-18) is funded by the Embassy of the Netherlands in Bamako. CARE-Mali is implementing it in 24 Communes in the Mopti Region. It is preceded by PADIN-I (2011-13) and the Food Security through Promotion of Irrigation project (SAPI 2007-11), for which CARE was also responsible. PADIN is therefore part of a history of the development and management of wetlands in the Mopti region. The report is 85 pages long. Read More...

“Political Economy Analysis for food and nutrition security and community resilience, and analysis of conflicts affecting food, nutrition and income security in Harande program area” Integrated Report

The major findings of this twofold study firstly highlight peaceful as well as contentious coexistence between formal institutions put in place with decentralization and informal and customary institutions managing resources essential to food and nutrition security. Stemming from a centuries-old tradition based on the right of the first occupant, the paramount importance of lineage and family, strict intra-community differentiation of socio- professional categories both in the management of pastoral resources and fisheries in Delta flooded areas and farming in dry areas, these customary institutions are still greatly relevant and legitimate in the eyes of the different communities today. Conversely, these communities often find it difficult to grasp the legal principles and norms (State land domain, local communities’ responsibilities, local governance, the role of deconcentrated State officials etc.) supporting local governments’ role in resource management. Consequently, the implementation of the Harande Program should be guided by the socio-cultural specifities of the target areas and should take into account the customary conflict management mechanisms as well as those promoted by civil society organizations which are the most validated by populations in the region of Mopti. The report is 140 pages long. Read More...

Youth Livelihoods Needs Assessment & Labor Market Assesssment

This study was undertaken to assess the supply side (youth ages 14-30 needs and preferences related to livelihoods), as well as the demand side (needs and opportunities in the labor market) in preparation for the design of the Youth Empowerment & Leadership (YELI or “enlighten” in Bambara) curriculum and training plan (IO 2.2). This report is 37 pages long. Read More...

Baseline Study of the Food for Peace Development Food Assistance Project in Mali Final

The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Food for Peace (FFP) awarded a contract for a development food assistance project in Mali in fiscal year (FY) 2015 to CARE International. The Human Capital, Accountability and Resilience Advancing Nutrition Security, Diversified Livelihoods and Empowerment (HARANDE) Project is implemented by CARE and its partners: Save the Children; Helen Keller International; Yam Giribolo Tumo; Sahel-Eco; and the Research and Technical Applications Group. The goal of the HARANDE Project—which means food security in Peulh—is to provide access to sustainable food, nutrition, and income security for 310,855 vulnerable household members in four districts (Bandiagara, Douentza, Tenenkou, and Youwarou) of the Mopti region in Mali by 2020. FFP contracted ICF to conduct a baseline study of the HARANDE Project in 2016 as the first phase of a pre-post evaluation cycle. The second phase will include a final evaluation, inclusive of an endline survey, in approximately five years. The baseline study includes a representative population-based household survey to collect data for key FFP indicators and a qualitative study to add context, richness, and depth to the findings from the household survey. The report is 434 pages long. Read More...

Mali Resilience Research Report

The objective of this research is to provide implementing partners, the Office of Food for Peace (FFP), the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance (FANTA) Project, and the United States Agency for International Development / Center for Resilience (C4R) with insights into factors that strengthen household and community resilience in Mali. This report complements the Baseline Study implemented by ICF International in Fiscal Year 2016. The research examines factors, in the context of resilience and mitigation of the negative effects of shocks and stresses on well-being, which can serve as the foundation for an evidence base for improving resilience programming in the Human Capital, Accountability and Resilience Advancing Nutrition Security, Diversified Livelihoods and Empowerment (HARANDE) Project areas. This report is 102 pages long. Read More...

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