Women's Economic Empowerment

Ethnic Minority Women’s Empowerment in Vietnam

Women in remote ethnic communities in Vietnam are not equally benefiting from the remarkable economic growth over the past decade. They experience high levels of poverty, unequal participation in economic opportunities, limited options to adapt to changes in the climate, and have a limited voice in decisions that affect them. CARE’s Ethnic Minority Women’s Empowerment project (EMWE), supported by Australian Aid, works with ethnic minority women to overcome these challenges. Read More...

GARMENT WORKER NEEDS ASSESSMENT DURING COVID19

The COVID19 pandemic has severely impacted the garment industry in Cambodia. As of July 2020, over 400 factories have temporarily or permanently closed down and over 150,000 workers are out of work.1 The garment industry employs approximately 750,000 workers in Cambodia, 89% of whom are women.
CARE’s Rapid Gender Analysis demonstrates the disproportionate impact that COVID19 has had on women in Cambodia and around the world. A lot of attention has been placed on the garment industry, but there is little detailed information available from the workers themselves on the impact of the pandemic and what support they need.
The objectives of this needs assessment are to:
• Better understand the needs of women garment workers during the COVID19 pandemic
• Develop evidence-based recommendations for CARE and civil society partners, workers’ organizations,
employers, brands and government stakeholders in Cambodia on how to best address the needs of women
garment workers during the COVID19 pandemic. Read More...

Laos Rapid Gender Analysis COVID-19 July 2020

As of 29 June 2020,10,280,397 confirmed COVID-19 cases and 505,145 deaths have been recorded across 213 territories countries and territories and 2 international conveyances. To date, the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) has confirmed 19 cases, mainly in the Vientiane Capital. The Government of Lao PDR has acted swiftly since the first reported infection to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Since 13 April 2020, no new confirmed cases have been reported.

Although Lao PDR has been able to avoid the worst health impacts of the pandemic, prevention measures such lockdown, closure of schools and businesses, social distancing and travel restrictions, have had significant economic and social impacts across the country. Gender roles, relations and norms within Lao society have influenced the impact of these measures on different genders. Drawing on primary and secondary data, this Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) has found that the pandemic has both reinforced traditional gender norms as well as provided opportunities for men and women to work together to address the current crisis. This reflects broader gender roles and relations in Lao society in which forces of modernization are challenging and changing traditional gender norms. Read More...

Applying Behavioral Science to Humanitarian Cash & Voucher Assistance for Better Outcomes for Women in MENA

Ideas42 and CARE International conducted research in three of CARE’s countries of presence—Iraq, Jordan, and Turkey—to develop a thorough understanding of the contexts in which women recipients in these settings receive, make decisions on, and use CVA to support themselves and their households. In the pages that follow, we aim to share behavioral insights that shed new light on the many challenges facing women when using CVA in humanitarian settings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. In summary, some of the key design principles that can increase the impact of CVA for women include minimizing the mental burdens placed on women throughout the transfer process, priming women to affirm positive identities at key times, making the full range of what CVA can be used for visible, and framing CVA in ways that encourages planning and careful consideration of spending priorities.

Though the guidance is best used during project assessment and design, it can be adapted to different phases in the project cycle. Users are encouraged to ensure that a wider range of specialists participate in discussions seeking to incorporate the guidance—including CVA Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL) teams, and sector specialists or technical leads. It can also be used as a point of reflection for evaluation or after-action reviews. In addition, the involvement of program support staff and senior management will be valuable to ensure that the points are actionable and properly resourced. Overall, we hope that this guidance at the least starts a wider conversation on applied behavioral science in the humanitarian space and encourages humanitarian organizations to work to implement behaviorally-informed programs with CVA. Read More...

CARE Gender Analysis Afghanistan July 2020

Women in Afghanistan face considerable socio-economic, political and power barriers. Gender-based inequality is extensive in the country – decades of conflict, poverty and conservative patriarchal norms limit Afghan women and girls’ freedom of movement, decision-making power and access to health, education, and other basic services and resources. The situation is more dire for women and girls in IDP settlements and contexts. Even though the current Afghan government is publicly committed to women’s rights and empowerment, women continue to face significant gender-based discrimination, bias and violence.

In line with the CARE global strategy, CARE Afghanistan considers gender equality and women empowerment as a primary mission. Promoting a life free from violence and tackling and reducing gender-based violence (GBV) are key strategies for CARE and, with this analysis, CARE Afghanistan intends to explore gender roles and responsibilities and power dynamics within internally displaced person (IDP), returnee and host communities in Herat and Badghis provinces. This research engaged 61 people in key informant and in-depth interviews from Herat and Badghis provinces including community members, community leaders, and representatives from government offices and NGOs. The findings from this analysis intend to contribute to and inform humanitarian, civil society, NGO and government authorities in their programming, policy and overall interventions in the target communities.

This research provides clear evidence that women in the target communities experience considerable levels of domestic violence, perpetrated by close relatives and have extremely low levels of awareness of and capacity to access available GBV support and referral services. 100% of female and 75% of male respondents from Badghis, and 75% of female and 89% of male respondents from Herat agreed that women, boys and girls have experienced violence in their communities. Respondents indicated that the main perpetrators of violence across the two provinces are fathers (33% in Herat, 34% in Badghis) and brothers (33% in Herat and 23% in Badghis). In Herat, 16% of respondents reported that husbands were perpetrators whereas in Badghis, mothers were the third most common perpetrator identified at 14% followed by husbands at 8%. It is clear from the results of this research that women experience violence from many more sources than men. Key informants identified poverty, culture and customs, lack of education and illiteracy, migration, unemployment, political insecurity, narcotics and the lack of information about rights and the law among the main causes of violence. Read More...

Market Systems Analysis: Alternative Economic Pathways for Adolescent Girls in Niger

Cette analyse de marché vise à donner un aperçu des sous-secteurs de la région de Zinder au Niger qui offrent des alternatives économiques viables et attrayantes à la procréation immédiate pour les adolescentes mariées. Grâce à l'utilisation initiale des cadres relatifs aux systèmes de développement des marchés, la recherche comprend une analyse documentaire, une analyse participative du sous- secteur et une recherche qualitative primaire à Zinder, se focalisant sur la schématisation des sous- secteurs priorisés, l'identification des opportunités et contraintes pour la performance globale des sous- secteurs, et pour la participation des femmes et des filles dans chaque sous-secteur. Read More...

Market Systems Analysis: Alternative Economic Pathways for Adolescent Girls in Kurigram district, Bangladesh

This market analysis aims to provide an overview of the sub-sectors within the Kurigram district of Bangladesh that offer viable and attractive economic alternatives to immediate childbearing for adolescent girls. Using a market systems development lens from the outset, the analysis consisted of a literature review, participatory sub-sector prioritization, and qualitative primary research in Kurigram that mapped the prioritized sub-sectors, focused on identifying opportunities and constraints for the participation of girls. Read More...

Final Project Evaluation of Women, Peace and Security (WPS) – Afghanistan

The Women, Peace and Security (WPS) project aimed to support the Kabul Women Association (KWA) with the four objectives of: 1) Support Kabul Women Association (KWA) to ensure that it is a well-functioning association, 2) KWA contributes to the increased protection, prevention and response for women’s rights issues, 3) KWA is participating in decision-making processes regarding the implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Women of Afghanistan (NAPWA) 2008-19; and 4) KWA members have increased economic independence through improve financial skills and access to financial services to start income generating activities. The WPS project was implemented in two provincial districts and seven municipality districts of Kabul province.

The WPS final project evaluation had followed the below rationale and helps to draw out the following:
- This will help generate knowledge from the project and to provide assessment of the processes and achievements made and draw the lessons learnt
- To the extent possible, the relevant results of this evaluation will act as the baseline for the next phase of the project (GEWEP III)
- This evaluation particularly provides results on the two periods of the project (2015-2018 and 2018-2020)
- It provides understanding of what has worked and what has not that can guide future planning

The WPS Final Evaluation collected data on the four outcomes listed under the WPS project results framework which are listed below:
- Outcome 1: The Kabul Women’s Association (KWA) is a well-functioning association
- Outcome 2: KWA contributes to the increased protection, prevention and response for
women’s rights issues
- Outcome 3: KWA is participating in decision-making processes regarding the
implementation of the National Action Plan (NAP) for the Women of Afghanistan
(NAPWA) 2008-2019
- Outcome 4: KWA members have expanded their income opportunities, strengthened
their economic independence and continue to participate in women rights advocacy activities
Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis – Middle East North Africa (MENA)

The COVID-19 pandemic and efforts at mitigating the virus’ spread in recent months have heightened the insecurity, psychosocial distress, economic vulnerability, gender inequality, and deprivation that already existed in countries in the Middle East and beyond. While men appear to have worse outcomes when infected with the coronavirus, women and girls are being deeply impacted– and fragile gains in women’s workforce participation are in jeopardy.

Refugees and the displaced, the majority of them located in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, are now faced with the COVID-19 pandemic and economically damaging efforts at its mitigation. Fragile gains in women’s workforce participation are at risk, gender-based violence is on the rise, and women’s voices are going unheeded. CARE’s soon-to-be-released Rapid Gender Analysis gathers together data from its country offices in MENA and beyond to provide a sobering picture of the pandemic’s impact on women and girls. Read More...

Labor Market Survey and Value Chains Assessment – Final Report for LAMP Project

Livelihood improvement and value chain development are one of the most important focus areas of external aid in Afghanistan, as poverty has increased in Afghanistan over time due to protracted conflict. Afghanistan Living Conditions Survey (2016-17) shows that rural poverty stood at 58.6% in 2016-17. Reduction in donor aid together with population increase have contributed to this increase in poverty. Ongoing conflict in the country has resulted in internal displacement of populations from insecure remote areas and influx of returnees from neighboring countries to major urban centers. In this context, Care Afghanistan is implementing the Livelihood Advancement for the Marginalized Populations (LAMP) project in four urban centers (Balkh, Ghazni, Kabul, Khost) of Afghanistan for the Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs)/returnees, especially for male and female youth. The project comprises four components covering activities in agriculture, livestock, vocational training/business development services and school-to-work transition.

The project planned to conduct a Labor Market Survey (LMS) to identify priority sectors with potential for growth and wage employment, identify challenges in finding jobs and move forward with proposed recommendations to overcome the challenges. Another related objective was to identify business opportunities, growth potential, and constraints of micro, small, and medium enterprises, and make recommendations to mitigate their constraints. Along the LMS, the project also planned to conduct a Value Chains Assessment (VCA). Objective of the VCA is to identify promising related businesses for upgradation as value chains. To meet these objectives, the project commissioned this LMS and VCA study. Read More...

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