child marriage

Impact of Tipping Point Initiative, a social norms intervention, in addressing child marriage and other adolescent health and behavioral outcomes in a northern district of Bangladesh

Child Marriage (CM) is a violation of human rights and it bears negative implications on the lives and well-being of girls. The global rate of CM before age 18 is 40% and before age 15 it is 12%. The adverse impact of CM on girls’ physical and mental health and development has been well documented. The literature presents multiple factors associated with CM, among which social norms features as an important one contributing to and perpetuating CM. Read More...

Findings from Kapilvastu and Rupandehi Districts, Nepal, 2019–2022

Girl child, early, and forced marriage (CEFM) persists in South Asia, with long-term effects on health and well-being. CARE’s Tipping Point Initiative (TPI) was designed to address the underlying causes of CEFM by challenging repressive gender norms and inequalities. The TPI engages different participant groups on programmatic topics and supports community dialogue to build girls’ agency, shift inequitable power relations, and change community norms sustaining CEFM. Read More...

Building sustainable and scalable peer-based programming: promising approaches from TESFA in Ethiopia

This research was written by Pari Chowdhary, Feven Tassaw Mekuria, Dagmawit Tewahido, Hanna Gulema, Ryan Derni, and Jefrey Edmeades.

In Ethiopia's Amara region, girls encounter child marriage at a high rate. They are also less able to negotiate sex or use family planning. With the purpose of improving their lives, CARE's TESFA program delivered reproductive health and financial savings curriculum to married girls through peer-based solidarity groups to 5,000 adolescent girls. This was divided into 3 interventions: sexual and reproductive health, economic empowerment, and a combination of both. Participants reported improvement in both areas. Four years after TESFA, 88% of groups communicated meeting without continued CARE's assistance, and some of the girl participants created new groups following the TESFA model. Also, some girls that did not participate in TESFA, replicated the model to create their own groups. Despite this, there is still in question who contributed to this sustainment and scale-up of groups.

Original article: https://reproductive-health-journal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12978-021-01304-7
Originally published by Biomedcentral and is republished under the creative commons 4.0 license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ - https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/). Read More...

Analyse du genre, avec un focus en particulier sur les violences basées sur le genre: Diffa, Niger

La présente étude genre mettant un focus particulier sur les Violences Basées sur le Genre (VBG) s’inscrit dans la mise en œuvre du projet bilatéral MARTAWA ZUROMAYE au Niger et au Nigeria: “ visant à renforcer les efforts centrés sur les survivants et informer pour prévenir et répondre , aux Violences Basées sur le Genre (VBG), en particulier les Mutilations Génitales Féminines et ou l’Excision (MFG/E) et le mariage d’enfant et ou forcé (MEF) dans les communautés touchées par les conflits et l’extrémisme violent dans l’Est du Niger et le nord e du Nigeria».
L’étude a combiné la méthode quantitative, probabiliste auprès des ménages à celle non probabiliste et qualitative à travers les focus groupes et des entretiens auprès des informateurs clés (chef de villages et ou quartiers, leaders d’associations de femmes, et jeunes, leaders religieux, leaders d’associations de professionnels, services techniques impliqués dans la mise en œuvre de la Politique Nationale Genre du Niger, etc.). La combinaison de ces deux approches a permis de mesurer l’ampleur du phénomène et d’en déterminer des causes et conséquences sous-jacentes.
Les résultats de l’étude révèlent que le phénomène des VBG à l’instar de toutes les régions du Niger est une réalité dans la région de Diffa et particulièrement dans les six communes d’intervention du projet. La particularité de cette région est liée à la crise humanitaire en cours qui a aggravé certaines violences et fragiliser davantage les mécanismes de réponses existants.
Les réponses à la question qui porte sur les VBG montrent que la résolution de ces cas est plus du ressort des mécanismes communautaires traditionnels ou familiaux que du système de protection formel.
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ProJeunes Final Evaluation Prévenir les mariages précoces et forcés au Bénin

Prévenir les mariages précoces et forcés au Bénin (PROJEUNES) est un projet de 3 millions de dollars canadiens destiné à lutter contre les mariages précoces et forcés d'enfants au Bénin, dans 20 villages aux départements de l'Alibori et du Borgou. PROJEUNES est un partenariat entre CARE, Youth Coalition for Sexual and Reproductive Rights et le gouvernement du Bénin (Ministère de la Santé, Ministère des Affaires sociales et de la Microfinance et Ministère des enseignements secondaire, technique et de la formation professionnelle). Le projet est un partenariat de trois ans, d'avril 2018 à mars 2021, financé par le gouvernement du Canada. Ce rapport présente les progrès réalisés pour l’atteinte des résultats ultime, intermédiaires et immédiats du projet. Plusieurs collectes et analyses des données de fin du projet ont été réalisées par l’équipe de projet et un consultant externe entre mars et juin 2021. Les différentes évaluations effectuées sont les suivantes : Revue et analyse documentaires des principales lois, politiques et stratégies béninoises relatives à la SSRD/SSRAJ, aux MPFE et aux VBG; Évaluation de groupements FaFa Wa et de certaines de leurs members; Évaluation de filles à risque/vulnérables et survivantes de MPFE; Enquête auprès des ménages; Analyse qualitative contextuelle et Évaluation de 12 CS et 4 CPS. Read More...

Tipping Point 2 Baseline Nepal

This report presents findings from the baseline survey of the CARE Tipping Point Program (TPP) impact evaluation in Nepal (May to July 2019), which is being undertaken in Kapilvastu and Rupandehi districts. CARE’s full Tipping Point Program—implemented in Nepal and Bangladesh—focuses on addressing the root causes of child, early, and forced marriage (CEFM) and on promoting the rights of adolescent girls through community-level programming and evidence generation. The approach of the CARE Tipping Point Program relies on challenging social expectations and repressive gender norms and promoting girl-centric and girl-led activism to enable adolescent girls to identify and to move into social spaces where they can challenge age-based and gender-based inequalities. The operational approach of the CARE Tipping Point Program entails the synchronized engagement of different participant groups—adolescent girls, adolescent boys, parents and community members, and community leaders—around four programmatic pillars: adolescent sexual and reproductive health and rights, social-norms, girl-led movement-building, and alternative livelihoods. The Program supports the creation of public spaces for all community members to engage in the dialogue.
The Care Tipping Point Program impact evaluation in Nepal is being undertaken through a multi-institutional collaboration between implementing partners of the Gender Justice team at CARE USA and CARE Nepal with researchers in the Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health at Emory University and Interdisciplinary Data Analysts (IDA) in Kathmandu, Nepal.
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Tipping Point Phase 2 Baseline Bangladesh

Although the body of evidence on how to prevent child marriage is growing, its rate did not decline at a desirable pace. Previous interventions targeted many of the root causes of child marriage. However, despite wide recognition of the need to change pro-child marriage social norms, attempt to study the impact of social norms change in addressing child marriage was rarely investigated or not investigated well. Lack of understanding of social norms and how to change them effectively impedes development of effective and sustainable child marriage prevention programs. Moreover, for most of the interventions, there were no rigorous evaluations. Furthermore, the interventions that had strong evaluation designs did not necessarily focus on social norms change. It is against this background that the current research employs a cluster randomized controlled trial (CRCT) to evaluate Tipping Point (TP), an integrated social norms intervention designed by CARE to address child marriage in Bangladesh. This report presents findings from the baseline survey. The report focuses on assessing the rates of child marriage in TP study areas and decision making ability of the adolescent girls. Read More...

Measuring Social Norms and Girls’ Empowerment Report of the SenseMaker study of the

This report presents the findings from a SenseMaker story collection process conducted as part of a qualitative evaluation of CARE International’s Tipping Point project in Sunamganj, Bangladesh. Tipping Point aims to reduce the incidence of child marriage through shifting social norms at the community level, addressing the root causes of the practice and seeking to holistically effect change at the level of individuals, communities, and the broader enabling environment. The SenseMaker study was conducted by the Overseas Development Institute and researchers from Jahangirnagar University, in close cooperation with Tipping Point’s two local implementing
partners, JASHIS and ASD in Sunamganj district. The evaluation team collected 875 stories in total: 325 from girls; 214 from boys; and 336 from mothers and fathers of adolescents.

The primary analytical approach for assessing the nature of change within Tipping Point communities was comparing the data from Boundary Partners (girls and boys who participate in Tipping Point ‘Fun Centre’ groups, and parents of adolescents who participate in Fun Centre groups) with data from non-Boundary Partners from the same village. Read More...

Towards Economic and Sexual Reproductive Health Outcomes for Adolescent Girls (TESFA) Ex-Post Evaluation Report

TESFA project (Towards Improved Economic and Sexual Reproductive Health Outcomes for Adolescent Girls) was launched in 2010 which targeted ever-married adolescent girls’ economic status and reproductive health. The project envisioned to mitigate the effects of early marriage among ever-married adolescent girls in two woredas, Farta and Lay Gayint, of South Gondar zone in the Amhara regional state of Ethiopia. The project aimed to reach five thousand adolescent girls having marital history under the age of 19 in 25 kebeles in the two woredas, with the goal of achieving measurable positive change in their economic empowerment and sexual and reproductive health status. The project operated through four programmatic arms: Economic empowerment only (EE only), Sexual and reproductive health only (SRH-only), Economic empowerment with sexual and reproductive health (combined) and a delayed implementation arm (Delayed comparison).

This sustainability assessment (Ex-Post Evaluation) was conducted in the areas where TESFA project was implemented for three years to improve economic (EE-only), and sexual and reproductive health (SRH-only) outcomes for ever‐married adolescent girls (10 - 19 years old). The Ex-post evaluation is conducted four years after the completion of TESFA project to assess the sustainability and auto-replication of original girls groups formed by TESFA project. Qualitative approach with purposive sampling method was employed in this sustainability study. Ever married girls groups from the former TESFA project SRH and EE arms, SAA group members (Adult male and female community members) in the SRH Arm, and different level government officials such as Kebele Officials, Health Extension Workers (HEW) and experts from different government offices were participants in the study. Detail information about the group was pulled from archived documents at field office and mapping exercise was done by identifying the girl groups with the help of CARE field office and SAA members in each kebele prior to the focus groups and key-informant interviews. Read More...

Child, Early and Forced Marriage: CARE’s Global Experience

In two world regions—Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and the Asia Pacific—CARE has developed regional strategies on CEFM that galvanize influence with regional, national, and global bodies, support feminist movements, connect the local to the global, scale up and share strategies that work, and target popular media with positive images of equality.18 At the same time, CARE is working on the ground in high prevalence countries around the world. This document lays out CARE’s
approach and experience in CEFM prevention and mitigation across the globe. Read More...

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