Gender Assessment


The Development Initiative for Northern Uganda (DINU) is a Government of Uganda program with support from the European Union. DINU was awarded to a CARE Denmark led Consortium comprising of CARE International in Uganda, Gulu Agricultural Development Company (GADC), Catholic Relief Services (CRS), Dynamic Agro-pastoralist Development Organization (DADO) and SORUDA. The consortium is implementing a project for inclusive market-based development for small holder farmers in Northern Uganda covering eleven districts.
Key Findings:
* Gender division of labour shows that women and girls do the bulk of unpaid care work. Women do 70% of household chores, and children 15%.
• Over 80% of couples report joint household decision making on sales and purchases but control over sales income is largely under men.
• Women are a majority in savings groups though borrowing is contested. Land is accessible to the entire household, but control is largely by men. Men also control credit, savings, and access to business skills.
• Gender norms influence nutrition, income, gender-based violence and enjoyment of SRHR. Read More...

Sudan – Khartoum, Al Gezira, East Darfur, South Darfur Rapid Gender Analysis

On April 15, 2023, heavy clashes erupted between the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) in Khartoum. The conflict has since expanded and involves more non-state armed actors. There has been a near total collapse of services in the most conflict-affected states, including the closure of markets, shops, healthcare centers, schools, and the outages of water, electricity, banking, and telecommunications infrastructures. The complexity of the situation sets the tone for rippling consequences that have been seen across the entire population, especially affecting already marginalized groups and those with pre-existing vulnerabilities (such as female-headed households and those with chronic health conditions). The purpose of the Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) is to provide information about the different needs, capacities and coping strategies of women and men focusing on four states: Al Gezira, Khartoum, East Darfur, and South Darfur. The RGA gathered primary data from 121 participants in August 2023, and triangulated the findings against 90 secondary data sources.
Data from the RGA shows that despite women taking on more income-generating responsibilities, they continue to have unequal decision-making rights within the household. One of the biggest changes in gender roles has been the emergence of more women in the labor force. Men and women alike reported feeling that the only job opportunities currently available are for women. As such, women are increasingly working outside of the household to financially provide for their families. Despite this change, the division of household unpaid care work has not shifted; in most cases, the burden of caretaking for the family is shouldered by women and has only expanded since schools have closed. Therefore, while most women feel they have gained marginally more decision-making power within the household, it has been primarily related to caregiving tasks and making choices around pursuing different types of income-generating opportunities.
Similarly, women are playing important roles in the humanitarian response, but they remain sidelined from humanitarian decision-making. Many of the patriarchal norms that have been long-present in Sudanese culture that restrict women’s agency and participation in the public sphere have continued. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Ghana- Upper East, Ashanti, Western North, Central and Bono COVID-19

Between March 2020 and May 2020 Ghana was ranked second amongst countries in the West and Central Africa region most impacted by the COVID-19. In the number of cumulative cases in the WHO Africa region, Ghana is number three. Three regions have maintained their position as having the highest number of COVID-19 cases in Ghana – Greater Accra, Ashanti and Western Regions. On March 12th 2020, Ghana recorded its first two cases. Because of the spread of the virus, the government has taken proactive deterrent measures to prevent its spread. Some of the measures range from the closure of land, sea and air borders (except for the transport of goods) to partial lockdown, closure of schools, enforcement of social distancing, mandatory wearing of face mask, quarantining of suspected cases, partial closure of markets and ban on all social gatherings. Despite these restrictions, the virus seems to be making rapid spread in the country. Ghana’s total confirmed cases as at Wednesday, April 15, 2020 is as follows: Confirmed cases 268, Recoveries 83, Well/responding to treatment 175, Critically/moderately ill 2, Deaths 8. The novelty of the virus will impact women, men, girls and boys in different aspect across the sixteen regions of Ghana.
The management of the pandemic has led to an increase in the workload of women in households. Men continue to predominantly retain the role of heads of household, in some cases dedicating more time to family discussions. However, women are taking full responsibility for household chores and caring for dependents, such as children, vulnerable elderly, and the sick, as well as children who have dropped out of school due to the temporary closure of schools. This significant increase in work for women has significant effects on their physical and psychological health.
Men also face mental health problems as they are under stress from the loss of paid work and have difficulty managing the confinement measures that prevent them from working.
Women's economic empowerment continues to be conditioned by social norms that limit women's control over economic resources and decision-making over financial resources in the household. The response to the crisis can easily increase the already existing gender gaps in livelihoods given the preventive measures adopted by the authorities, even though some of them have already been lifted.

Gender Analysis in Sudan: Exploring Gender Dimensions of Humanitarian Action and Women’s Voice and Leadership in East Darfur, Gadarif, Kassala, South Darfur, and South Kordofan

CARE Sudan is working to ensure that gender dynamics in Sudan are well understood, and that gender is fully integrated into all programmes and operations. This gender analysis covers each of the sectors to which CARE Sudan responds, highlighting key similarities and differences within the five operational states in which CARE Sudan operates. In all sectors, the analysis assesses differences in barriers and opportunities for different populations, especially women and girls.
Study Findings
Livelihoods. Unlike most of the other sectors of focus in this analysis, livelihoods present the most diverse experiences of women across states, localities, and villages. Generally, however, women the Darfur states experience similar challenges and opportunities, whereas the women in the other three states each have different types of experiences based on the context and norms in these regions. Core challenges experienced by women include the lack of available job opportunities, women’s responsibility over the household which doubles their burdens, lack of ownership and
control over productive assets, and exposure to gender-based violence. These issues are driven by some harmful and unequal official and customary laws, paternalistic gender norms, insecurity and conflict, illiteracy and poor education, and limited education.
Governance and Peacebuilding. Governance systems have been in turmoil since the 2019 Revolution. Despite this period of well-documented crisis at the national level, few issues were described by study respondents at the local level. This indicates a severe separation between national and local issues on the ground. However, women are consistently excluded in all governance and peacebuilding spaces across all states. The most common issues raised included hierarchical traditional mechanisms and powerholders, domination of men over decision-making, deliberate exclusionary practices, and the artificial fulfilment of women’s quota. These issues persist due to women’s illiteracy and poor education, social norms and traditional practices, harmful beliefs about women, low access to information for women, withdrawal of civil society, heavily centralized governance systems, and gaps in gender equality laws.
Gender-Based Violence. The types of GBV identified in Sudan include domestic / family violence (e.g., hard beating, psychological abuse), community social violence (e.g., exclusion, humiliation), harmful traditions and customs (e.g., early marriage, FGM/C), and violence during war (e.g., rape, killing). Women experience several challenges related to GBV – beyond the act of violence itself – such as stigmatization of reporting and the normalization of domestic violence. GBV is so prevalent due to unequal laws the enable it, patriarchal gender norms, economic hardship, insecurity and conflict, and the absence of law enforcement. It is driven internally by the family by the deep need
to protect family honor.
Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH). Issues around water are well-understood and agreed upon by community members, with little differences in opinions be gender. The core issues relate to water include unreliable water accessibility, unequal responsibilities for water fetching and management that fall almost exclusively to women and girls and cause harmful health impacts, and the contamination of water sources. Similarly, related to sanitation, there is inadequate availability of latrines and poor cleanliness and waste accumulation in available latrines. Women specifically face the core hygiene issue of unavailability of dignity kits and no soap for washing. Such issues are primarily caused by poor governance and insufficient budgets alongside decentralized and male dominated water decision-making that does not account for women’s needs and discriminatory social norms and practices.
Health. The main health challenges identified in the states related to pregnancy and reproductive health, with little attention given to infectious or chronic diseases. Core to all health issues is the deficit of available and/or adequate reproductive and general health care centres. Health care may be the only sector in which men and women feel there is more equitable treatment between the genders; in fact, pregnant women tend to get preferential treatment in health centers when they are seen. However, significant issues remain for women including a lack of trained (female) medical staff and unaffordable medications and services. Like other sectors, poor governance and insufficient budget are primary drivers of weak health systems despite the INGO community playing a major role in building and delivering care at health centers. A significant emerging issue in the sector is the increasing mental health needs for women, particularly refugees.
Food Security and Nutrition. Families in all states report insufficient food availability driven by the rapidly collapsing economic situation and price hikes due to inflation. Food scarcity challenges are compounded by the deterioration of the agricultural season as a result of climate change in as most families are constrained to eat just what they can grow or procure very easily and cheaply locally. Even when food is available, it is very limited in variety causing low nutritional intake.
Women experience malnutrition because social norms dictate that they eat last and least even though overcoming food shortages is primarily the burden of women. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) – Mudja, Munigi and Kanyaruchinya IDP camps in North Kivu province

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the province of North Kivu, has recently been affected by insecurity resulting from conflict between armed combatants (militia) and the government forces (FARDC). This has had a negative impact on the territories of Rutshuru, Nyiragongo and Masisi. The fighting which began in Rutshuru and Nyiragongo, spread to the eastern part of Masisi territory, depriving the rest of the adjacent area, including Goma, of a supply route. The National Road 2 connecting Goma to Rutshuru, is controlled by the combatants since the October-November 2022 offensives. By December 2022, at least 530,190 persons have been displaced since the fighting began, including at least 318,114 women and girls. More than 88% of internally displaced persons (IDPs) live in collective centres (churches, schools, stadiums) and makeshift sites (camps), while the rest are hosted by host families. More than 137,000 IDPs were forced to return to their places of origin in Rutshuru and Rwanguba health zones when fighting intensified in October 2022. Population movements remain dynamic and evolve according to the security context. To have a response that considers the different needs, capacities and coping strategies of women, girls, boys, and men affected by displacement, CARE International in DRC conducted a Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) in the displacement camps of Nyiragongo Health Zone, Kanyaruchinya, Munigi and Mudja camps from December 2022 to January 2023. Focus group discussions, Individual and Key Informant Interviews were held with the affected population. Read More...

Impacto del cambio climático en la Inseguridad Alimentaria Áreas afectadas por ETA, IOTA y Julia

La depresión tropical Julia impactó en Guatemala, entre el 7 y 10 de octubre de 2022. Los estragos causados por esta tormenta se logran entender en el marco de un año con lluvias estacionales intensas, que mantenían al país con un alto porcentaje de humedad en los suelos. Los departamentos más afectados fueron: Izabal, Alta Verapaz, Huehuetenango, Quiché, Petén, Zacapa, Chiquimula y Suchitepéquez. Estos departamentos, coinciden con la mayoría de los que fueron afectados por Eta e Iota en el año 2020, por lo cual, el impacto de Julia fue enorme. A esto se sumaban los efectos de la pandemia por COVID-19, que aún presenta rebrotes con bajas tasas de vacunación de la población. Este contexto humanitario complejo y multifactorial, que se tenía al momento del ingreso de la depresión tropical Julia, explica en gran parte, la difícil situación enfrentada por la población afectada.
En octubre de 2022, en el Informe, CONRED reportó que las lluvias asociadas a depresión tropical Julia provocaron 1995 incidentes, con deslizamientos de tierra, derrumbes, hundimientos, inundaciones, entre otros. Fueron afectadas 1,358,158 personas, se evacuaron 58,634 y 19,372 fueron damnificadas, de las cuales 10,319 fueron llevadas a albergues. El perfil de las familias más afectadas muestra que el mayor impacto lo tuvieron hogares rurales y pertenecientes a los pueblos indígenas Q’eqchi’, K’iche’, Mam, Kaqchikel, Garífuna y Chorti´, y con ingresos menores a 3 mil quetzales, que se dedican principalmente a la agricultura de subsistencia, servicios, ventas y trabajos informales. La Evaluación de Daños y Análisis de Necesidades –EDAN-, desarrollada por CONRED, reportó que las viviendas afectadas fueron 2,303 en riesgo, 2,946, con daño leve, 15,430 con daño moderado y 996 con daño severo. Las infraestructuras públicas dañadas fueron 450 carreteras afectadas, 7 carreteras destruidas; 199 escuelas afectadas; 124 puentes dañados, 14 puentes destruidos, 14 puentes hamaca dañados y 1 destruido. (Gobierno de Guatemala, 2022)1
La depresión tropical Julia, ha impactado directamente en la calidad de vida de las personas afectadas, dejando pérdidas que profundizan su pobreza y precariedad:
• El 62% de las familias entrevistadas, ya habían sido afectadas por Eta e Iota en 2020. Es decir que son poblaciones con una situación constante de amenaza y precarización por la pérdida continua de sus medios de vida. Las pérdidas principales fueron debido a inundaciones, deslaves y derrumbes; afectando tierras, siembras, cosechas, semillas, árboles y animales de patio, y en menor medida, ganado, equipo y
herramientas y vehículos.
• De las 107 personas entrevistadas, un 35% tuvo daños en su vivienda. De estas, solo tres familias han recibido apoyo para reparar daños o reconstruir su vivienda. Muchas de estas familias ya habían tenido daños con las tormentas Eta e Iota en 2020.
• En el acceso al agua, el 4% de las familias tuvo daños severos en sus sistemas de agua y 5% perdieron el acceso al agua, debido a la destrucción de tuberías, pozos y contaminación de fuentes de agua.
• En lo relacionado con el acceso a servicios de salud, las comunidades que no tienen puesto de salud no tuvieron acceso a atención con personal de salud o a medicamentos durante la emergencia. Al igual que en otros RGA realizados anteriormente, se constata que el sistema de salud tiene limitadas capacidades para atender a la población, así como, para responder a emergencias y atender a la población afectada.
• El RGA reporta que las personas entrevistadas, en su mayoría, tienen ingresos inferiores al salario mínimo y al precio de la Canasta Básica Ampliada – CBA-. El 62% de las familias tienen ingresos menores a tres mil quetzales, y de estos, el 31% son inferiores a 1,500 quetzales. Estos ingresos no les permite generar condiciones para enfrentar este tipo de emergencias.
• En su mayoría, las familias dependen de los pocos medios de vida que poseen, y que se vieron afectados por las lluvias, inundaciones y deslaves. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Policy Brief: Sudan Conflict Response, May 2023

On April 15, 2023, the Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF) and Rapid Support Forces (RSF) erupted into heavy clashes in Khartoum. The armed fighting is concentrated in urban centres, mostly affecting Khartoum and areas along the east-west corridor of Kassala to West Darfur.1 Violence continues to escalate despite the ceasefire that was announced on April 24, 2023. According to the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH), between April 15 and 27, 589 people have been killed and 4,599 have been injured due to the violence.
As of 6 May, 334,000 civilians are estimated have been displaced internally (a majority of whom are women and children), fleeing to safer areas within Sudan while 120,0000 have left Sudan with the majority seeking refuge in
Central African Republic, Chad, Ethiopia, Egypt, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and South Sudan. Vulnerable populations such as female-headed households, persons with disabilities, urban poor, pregnant and lactating
women, children, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) before this conflict are at a heightened risk.
Frontline organizations have begun providing initial reports that residential buildings, water, and energy infrastructure are damaged, some banks have closed while communications and internet connectivity have also been breached. Basic services are down, and civilians risk their lives to travel to more secure areas. Families are prioritising women and children for evacuations to safer places, leading to family separations, and exposing them
to higher risks of gender-based violence and trafficking en -route to safety. For persons with physical disability, this is particularly difficult is possible as there is limited support to help their mobility. Public and private
facilities have been looted including health centres and aid organizations as the situation gets dire. Read More...


South Sudan has experienced cycles of conflict since before its independence in 2011. Since the start of the civil war, the country has faced displacement, violence, and high rates of sexual and gender-based violence. Despite the 2018 peace deal, South Sudan continues to face intermittent violence, political instability, climate shocks, and floods. The humanitarian situation is critical, with millions of people in need.

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation is part of the Women Lead in Emergencies project in Wau, Wau County, Western Bahr el-Ghazal State. This project is funded by Global Affairs Canada. It aims to support crisis-affected women to participate more and in more meaningful ways in community and public life and in humanitarian response in South Sudan.

This is the first Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) conducted in Wau. It has three main objectives: (1) analysis of crisis-affected women’s access to, and influence within, decision-making of different kinds; (2) provide practical programming and operational recommendations to support crisis-affected women to participate more in decision-making, and in more meaningful ways; and (3) identify gaps for further assessment and analysis to build a more comprehensive understanding of women’s participation and leadership in Wau over time.

The RGA-P is composed of primary qualitative data collection and a secondary data review. Primary data collection took place between Dec 2nd and Dec 6th, 2022, in four locations across Wau. It included 20 focus group discussions, 14 key informant interviews, and 4 community mappings. A total of 249 people participated, including 133 women and 116 men. This data was supplemented a validation workshop with several women’s associations and leaders.

Mujeres Líderes en Emergencias Análisis Rápido de Género y Poder Pamplona, Norte de Santander, Colombia

Este informe de Análisis Rápido de Género (ARG)sobre el Poder examina el liderazgo de las mujeres en la respuesta humanitaria de Venezuela en Pamplona, Colombia. La crisis venezolana ha afectado a los ciudadanos venezolanos y colombianos, siendo las mujeres y las comunidades marginadas las más afectadas. Mediante entrevistas e investigación documental, se puso de manifiesto que las mujeres no participan adecuadamente en los espacios formales e informales en los que pueden influir en las decisiones que se adoptan en relación con el plan de respuesta humanitaria dirigido por el Gobierno de Colombia y los organismos de ayuda humanitaria. Las normas sociales patriarcales son una gran barrera, ya que se espera que las mujeres se queden en casa debido al control que ejercen los hombres sobre sus movimientos y la opinión de que las mujeres deben cuidar a los niños, el hogar y cocinar los alimentos, limita el tiempo de que disponen las mujeres para participar. La necesidad de encontrar una forma de ingresos también limita el tiempo de que disponen las mujeres para participar en los espacios de acción colectiva. La falta de conocimiento y conciencia sobre los derechos que tienen como mujeres y como migrantes, y sobre los spacios existentes en los que pueden participar es una barrera adicional. Para muchas mujeres migrantes, la situación irregular en Colombia hace que permanezcan en la sombra y no busquen ayuda ni participen en espacios de toma de decisiones por temor a la deportación. La discriminación sexual, calla las voces de los miembros de la comunidad LGBTIQ+, lo que da lugar a una respuesta humanitaria que no aborda adecuadamente sus necesidades.
Si bien hay barreras que enfrentan las mujeres colombianas y venezolanas afectadas por la crisis, existen oportunidades para aumentar su participación, por ejemplo, por parte de organizaciones femeninas y feministas ya existentes en la región, las organizaciones comunitarias informales de migrantes, y la participación en las mesas del GIFMM como método para que las mujeres actúen conjuntamente para exigir atención y recursos para sus prioridades y directamente afectadas por la crisis. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power INCREASE: Northern Samar, Philippines

Vulnerable groups – particularly women – suffer most from natural and man-made hazards. Now more than ever, there is a need to account for their needs and interests in public decision-making spaces to ensure that community-based disaster risk reduction (DRR) mechanisms and governance structures are effective, inclusive, and are sustainably adopted. Providing women with the opportunity and ability to actively participate in DRR planning and solutions not only amplifies their voice in decisions that affect their lives, but also harnesses their potential in leading community DRR work.
Aimed at increasing the resilience of small-scale farmers, fisher folk – with focus given to female headed-households and women collectives in its partner communities, Project INCREASE sought to augment its
women engagement activities and advocacy work through (1) piloting the Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE)
action research model in its activities, and (2) drawing insights from the Rapid Gender Analysis on Power (RGA-POW) conducted in nine crisis-affected barangays in Mapanas, and Palapag, Northern Samar, Philippines covered by the project.
This RGA-POW provides information about the different needs, capacities and aspirations of women – with a focus on the structural and relational barriers to, and opportunities for women’s leadership and public participation during and after emergencies, as well as relevant information on the local context from previous studies (e.g. post-distribution monitoring reports, rapid gender analyses, etc.).
Apart from demonstrating that women do have power and exercise this with other women, the report also outlines underlying reasons for limited public voice and decision-making for different groups of women, and identifies potential resistors and risks, as well as present opportunities and actions that can address observed barriers. Thus, providing promising directions for WLiE in INCREASE. Read More...

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