Food and Nutrition Security

Endline Survey of Cocoa Sustainability Initiative (CSI) II

This report is on the consultancy assignment to conduct an end line survey of Cocoa Sustainability Initiative (CSI II), a partnership between CARE International and General Mills Foundation (GMI). A team of consultants from GIMPA Consultancy and Innovation Directorate (GCID), conducted the survey within the period of four weeks in December 2020 across twenty communities in the Asikuma Odoben Brakwa District.

The project is targeted at improving the livelihoods of individuals in cocoa-growing communities and optimizing cocoa production through climate change adaptation. The initiative which started in 2017 and ended in August, 2020 is aimed at promoting gender equity, building farmer resilience to mitigate the impact of climate change and strengthen local capacity to initiate and own the process of development in cocoa-growing communities.

Some major significant change stories include increased yields, high adoption of good agricultural practices, improved access to financial service and improved financial decision making by women. [66 Pages] Read More...

Lesson Learned from the construction of a 1800m3 capacity gabion in Wadi Hassan Valley, Khanfer district, Aden governorate under Food for Assets (FFA) Project

What is the specific situation that the lesson learned relates to?
It is about this asset that serves and protects more than 5,000 acres of agricultural land from drought and adds value in different aspects such as increasing underground water level of Abyan and Aden, as such, leading to diversified livelihood options e.g. livestock rearing and bee farming.

How is this impacted by the local context/environment/culture?
The agricultural sector is one of the most important economic sectors in Abyan governorate, and the main source of income for most of the people, as many of them are engaged in agriculture activities. Abyan governorate is famous for its agricultural valleys including Wadi Banna, Wadi Hassan, Wadi Delta Abyan, Delta Ahour.

Because of previous conflicts and wars that occurred in Abyan, the irrigation system was destroyed and was subjected to destruction and neglect. The Abyan Delta agricultural area located in the districts of Zanzibar and Khanfar in Abyan governorate experienced high flow of water from seasonal rainfall, however, the flow of water irrigated a small part of agricultural areas in Khanfar and Zanzibar districts. The bulk of these flood water went into to the sea, as well as causing damages such as eroding farmers' lands, damaging roads, damaging irrigation channels, bridges, and even the destruction of homes that affected some villages and population centres.

After the failure of the dam project in Wadi Hassan in year 1992, many irrigation channels, including Hussein Canal, were deprived of floodwater, which led to the drought of agricultural lands, in the process, depriving more than 2000 families of their main source of income. Hussein Canal covers more than 5000 Hectares of agricultural land that has been deprived for more than ten years of seasonal floods, which is its main source of irrigation by torrents.

In this project, five villages (Al-Dergag, Al-Komblyah, Maykalan, Kadmat Al-Saeed qasem and Obar Otman) that are inter-connected as a sub-district were targeted and benefited from the floodwater that came through the Hussein Canal. Based on the community leaders and irrigation office’s request, a 1800m3 capacity Gabion (360 inter-connected sub-gabions each with size 5m length X 1m depth X 1m breadth) covering a distance of 105 meters was constructed in Wadi Hassan to bring water from the valley to Hussein main channel for irrigation for villager’s lands by floods and torrents water. [5 Pages]
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Integrated Humanitarian Assistance Program (IHAP) South and East Darfur

WASH, Health and Nutrition project is supporting the most vulnerable populations in South and East Darfur States. The project aims to provide lifesaving and integrated WASH, Health and Nutrition Services to 443,190 individuals 332,764 individuals in South (including 253,191 IDPs and 79,573 host community members) and 110,426 individuals in East Darfur (including 10,000 IDPs and 100,426 host community members). CARE target IDPs and host communities in both South and East Darfur states by increasing access to safe water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene supplies, improving access to basic curative and preventive primary health care, and increased access to nutrition assistance for affected children under 5 and pregnant and lactating women (PLW). Integrating WASH, Health, and Nutrition activities the project will contribute to saving lives by reducing wasting and stunting levels caused by Moderate Acute Malnutrition (MAM) and Severe Acute Malnutrition (SAM).

In October 2020, CARE International Vibes Consultancy Services to conduct an end-line evaluation of the project implemented during the period 2019 to 2020 in two States (South and East Darfur) The evaluation is expected to contribute to strengthening accountability of CARE International for its donors and key stakeholders (including beneficiaries), and to learn from this experience to inform future WASH, Health and Nutrition projects. Key evaluation questions have been special focus on project relevancy, efficiency, effectiveness and impact of the project. This report therefore documents key findings of the evaluation as well as lessons learnt and recommendations useful in guiding the implementation of future projects. [44 Pages] Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Um Rakuba Camp and Tunaydbah Settlement, Eastern Sudan April 2021

Since 9 November 2020, Ethiopian and Eritrean asylum seekers have been arriving in Eastern Sudan, fleeing a military escalation in the Tigray region in northern Ethiopia. Eastern Sudan is facing multiple challenges including high levels of food insecurity, flood recovery, increased militarisation on the Sudan and Ethiopia border, as well as the COVID-19 pandemic and the impacts of mitigation and containment measures. As of 17th April (latest situation report), the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) and the Government’s Commissioner for Refugees (COR) registered 62,850 individuals who have crossed the border into Eastern Sudan. It is estimated that 36% of the arrivals are female and 64% are male. Further estimations show that 27% of the arrivals are children (0-17years); out of which 8% are below 5 years. Elderly (+60years) comprise 4% and Adults (18-59 years) 69% of the arrivals. Of those who arrived, data as of January 2021, showed 15,056 are women and girls of reproductive age and 1,365 currently pregnant women. Primary data collection, through FGDs, KIIs and Individual Stories, took place between 16-18th February 2021, in Um Rakuba camp and Tunaydbah settlement.

RGA objectives were to:
• Better understand, the main needs, priorities and coping strategies of women, men, girls and boys,
as well as at-risk groups in Um Rakuba camp and Tunaydbah settlement
• Identify how CARE and the wider humanitarian community can adapt and design targeted services
and assistance to meet these needs, ensuring we do no harm. Read More...

Final Evaluation Report: Gender-sensitive WASH, Nutrition and Health Support to vulnerable communities in South and East Darfur

CARE has been implementing the WASH ,Health and Nutrition project from which aims to provide lifesaving and integrated WASH, Health and Nutrition Services to 174,504 individuals (87,077 males and 87,427 females) in East Darfur and South Darfur through the GAC-funded 2019-2021 project (“the GAC project”).The program aimed to benefit refugees in camp and out of camp settings, out of camp IDPs and host communities by increasing access to safe water supply, sanitation facilities and hygiene supplies, improving access to basic curative and preventive primary health care, and increased access to nutrition assistance for children under five and pregnant and lactating women (PLWs). End line evaluation was conducted for the ended project.

Water: from the survey result it shows that 85.8% responded that their primary source of water is safe throughout the year, compared to the baseline survey which shows that 66% of the respondents still use unsafe drinking water sources.

Sanitary practices: 73.9% of survey participants indicated that they use family toilets for defecation, where in the base line survey show that 34% of the respondents having access to adequate sanitation.

Practice Of Hand Washing: 60.9 % of interviewees (Female: 61.0%, Male: 60.8%) know three critical moments, where in base line survey 65% of the respondents being able to mention at least 3 critical times to perform hand washing.

WASH satisfaction: The end line survey for HHs reported that with WASH regarding relevance, timely and accountability, (75.3%)- (70.6% f,77.9%m) reported that it was relevant

Nutrition: 72.9%% of respondents were satisfied with the nutrition assistance provided.
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McGovern-Dole Food Fore Education Program HATUTAN – Midline Evaluation

The HATUTAN program (Hahán ne’ebé Atu fó Tulun ho Nutrisaun no Edukasaun or Food to Support Nutrition and Education) is a five-year initiative to build a partnership between schools and communities in order to improve literacy, learning, healthy, and nutrition for children and adults in Timor-Leste. The program works in partnership with the Government of Timor-Leste and development stakeholders to address two strategic objectives: improved literacy of school-aged children and increased use of health, nutrition, and dietary practices. The HATUTAN program is funded by the U.S. government through the Foreign Agricultural Service of the United States Department of Agriculture under the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program. The program is implemented by a consortium led by CARE International with Mercy Corps and WaterAid. The lead Timorese government partner is the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of State Administration, and Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries.

To achieve these objectives, the program supports, among a variety of activities, the Government of Timor-Leste’s school feeding program (SFP) to fully operate in all basic education and preschools throughout the school year. Key project activities include strengthening and supplementing the government-sponsored SFP and building school capacity through trainings for teachers and administrators and provision of resource materials. Additionally, the HATUTAN program seeks to support farmers to boost the production of local produce to increase yields and help create sustainable sources of nutritious food for local schools. In addition to activities related to literacy and SFPs, HATUTAN seeks to conduct trainings related to nutrition, health, and other topics, and to promote gender equality and the reduction of gender-based violence.

This report presents the midline evaluation of the HATUTAN program, which began in early 2019. It is important to note that restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic have had a substantial impact on program activities and target outputs and outcomes. In March 2020, HATUTAN field activities were halted, field offices were temporarily closed, and staff began to work from home due to a State of Emergency issued by the Government of Timor-Leste. This State of Emergency remains in effect to date, with varying levels of restriction on school activities, movement, and group gatherings. As a result, the HATUTAN program is behind schedule in terms of some major deliverables due to COVID-19. Additionally Read More...

Gender and food security in Fiji A community-based gender analysis in Macuata Province, Vanua Levu

This report presents the results of a community-based gender and food security analysis that was carried out by ADRA Fiji in partnership with CARE International with funding from the WPHF, administered and supported by UN Women. The main purpose of the gender analysis is to gain a better understanding of the varying gender dynamics and socio-cultural contexts that can positively and negatively impact household and community food security and resilience in the context of climate change and disasters.
The findings and recommendations of the analysis are intended to strengthen the gender equality impacts of ADRA Fiji’s Vakarau Wai 1 Pro-Resilience Project, as well as inform the agency’s other programming. As part of the wider project the intention is also to more broadly share and discuss the findings to strengthen awareness among food security and livelihood stakeholders that localised social and gender context analysis is critical to ensure effective and sustainable food security in Fiji’s ever-changing climate environment and to also ensure food security and livelihoods (FSL) initiatives, foster gender equality and support women’s meaningful participation in decision-making in homes and communities across Fiji.
For this study data was collected and analysed from two communities, an iTaukei village and a settlement largely comprised of Fijians of Indian descent in Macuata Province, Vanua Levu. The aim was to identify gender specific needs, vulnerabilities and capacities, particularly among high risk and marginalised groups, and how these dimensions affect food security and household and community resilience and women’s empowerment. A total of 71 people (35 female and 36 males) ranging in age from 20 – 83 years old contributed their views for this study, including six people with impairments (four with difficulty walking and two with varying levels of visual impairment), as well as four widows and two widowers. Data was collected in relation to four core areas of inquiry namely: access to and control over resources, gender roles and divisions of labour, household decision-making, and participation in public decision-making, using focus group discussions and key informant interviews, along with several transect walks. Read More...

‘IF WE DON’ T WORK, WE DON’ T EAT’ Syrian Women Face Mounting Food Insecurity a Decade into the Conflict

Ten years ago, the lives of many Syrians changed profoundly as anti-government demonstrations escalated into violent conflict between forces allied to the Government of Syria and armed opposition groups. The resulting humanitarian crisis is one of the worst of our time – 6.7 million Syrians remain internally displaced; an estimated 13 million people are in need1 and 12.4 million live with food insecurity.

In recent months, the situation has deteriorated even further as the COVID-19 pandemic, mass displacements, natural
disaster, economic collapse and ongoing hostilities have combined to create a situation wherein households are
finding it increasingly difficult to meet their basic needs, including for food.

Average food prices in Syria increased by 236% in 2020 – and food prices are more than 29 times higher than the five year pre-crisis average, causing many families to resort to negative coping strategies. This includes eating fewer
or smaller meals to get by. Furthermore, due to the loss or reduced capacity of male heads of household to death, injury, disappearance or emigration in search of work, many Syrian women are now the sole or primary breadwinners for their families, bearing the full burden of providing for their families with limited livelihood opportunities. About 22% of Syrian households are now headed by women; this is up from only 4% prior to the conflict. Even in households where the male head of household is working in some capacity, dire economic circumstances have pushed women to find some source of income to help with household expenses. In both cases, women are thrust into the ‘provider’ role in a way that most had not previously experienced. Read More...

DESARROLLO ECONÓMICO, SOCIAL Y RURAL INTEGRAL EN COMUNIDADES INDÍGENAS DE LA PROVINCIA DE NAPO

El objeto a evaluar es el proyecto “Desarrollo económico, social y rural integral en comunidades indígenas de la provincia de Napo” (Para los fines de esta evaluación se resumirá de la siguiente manera el nombre del proyecto: “DESRICI de la Provincia de Napo”). El Proyecto es llevado a cabo por Maquita Cushunchic y financiado a través del Ministerio Federal de Cooperación Económica y Desarrollo de Alemania (BMZ) y CARE Alemania. Su localización geográfica es la Provincia de Napo en el cantón Tena y las parroquias de Ahuano y Chontapunta. Se evalúa el periodo completo de ejecución entre el 2017 y 2020 y corresponde a la evaluación final sobre cómo el diseño, proceso y ejecución han contribuido al logro de los tres resultados propuestos en la formulación de la intervención Read More...

SUAAHARA II GOOD NUTRITION PROGRAM Annual Survey Year 3

Nepal’s reductions in maternal and child undernutrition since the mid-1990s have been remarkable, but the high burden persists. Among children under five years, 36% are stunted, 10% are wasted, and 27% are underweight. Additionally, 17% of women of reproductive age (WRA, 15-49 years) are underweight while 41% are anemic (Nepal DHS Survey, 2016). The Government of Nepal (GoN) is rolling out the second phase of their national Multi-Sector Nutrition Plan (MSNP), with support of external development partners (EDPs). Suaahara II (SII) is a USAID-funded multisectoral nutrition program, aligned with Nepal’s MSNP, and is being implemented in all communities of 42 of Nepal’s 77 districts from April 2016 to March 2021. SII’s overall aim is to reduce the prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight among children under five years of age and to reduce the prevalence of anemia among WRA and children 6-59 months of age. SII works across thematic areas including nutrition, health and family planning (FP), water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), agricultural/homestead food production (HFP), and governance, using a gender equality and social inclusion (GESI) approach for all interventions.
SII has a large, rigorous monitoring, evaluation, and research system. Annual monitoring surveys, a key component of SII’s monitoring system, primarily serve to monitor progress over time related to key SII inputs, outputs, and outcomes in intervention areas. The first SII annual monitoring survey was conducted between June to September 2017 among a representative sample of households with a child under five years by New ERA, a local survey firm. At the household level, mothers were the primary survey respondents. A primary male (or female, if male unavailable) household decision maker, the youngest child’s grandmother, and an adolescent girl (10-19 years), if residing in the same household, were also interviewed. Data was also collected from Female Community Health Volunteers (FCHVs) and 1 key informant from each health facility in the sampled areas. The household surveys included questions related to exposure, knowledge and practices for each of the thematic areas mentioned above. Anthropometric status was assessed for all female respondents and children. FCHV and health facility surveys collected information on exposure to training, motivation, supervision, and work-related activities. In 2017, the final survey sample included 3,642 households. Read More...

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