Gender Assessment

A comparative study of Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam in Vanuatu

Vanuatu is made up of 83 islands scattered across 1200 square kilometers of the Pacific Ocean, leaving remote populations isolated and making access and service delivery difficult. Vanuatu is well established as one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world, with cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes, tsunamis, droughts, and floods among the hazards faced (UNU 2015). On 13 March 2015, Category Five Tropical Cyclone Pam (TC Pam), one of the worst cyclones to hit the Pacific region, struck Vanuatu and other Pacific Islands. TC Pam brought very destructive winds, storm surges, and flooding across huge areas of Vanuatu, destroying homes, schools, health facilities, crops, and livestock and affecting approximately 188,000 people, or 70% of the population (Government of Vanuatu 2015a). Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) Women Lead in Emergencies Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar

This is the first Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) report completed in Mawlamyine, Mon State, Myanmar. An RGA-P assesses the impact of crisis on gender, power relations and women’s participation and leadership.
Key findings
• Social norms severely limit women’s rights, voice and access to decision making and leadership roles in the community.
• Formal and informal decision-making spaces are still largely dominated by men.
• There are limited all female community groups active in the targeted communities.
• When women are participating in formal governance positions or community groups, they are relegated to support roles and have no opportunities to influence decision making within those spaces.
• Social and economic insecurity as a result of the military coup and resulting violence, COVID and other issues have increased security concerns across Myanmar and contribute to the barriers faced by women in relation to participation and leadership in their community. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation: Women Lead in Emergencies Northern Shan State, Myanmar

As of December 2022, there are 1.4 million internally displaced people (IDP) in Myanmar.4 Over 40,000 people remain in neighboring countries like Bangladesh, Thailand, and India since the takeover. More than 18,058 civilian properties, including houses, churches, monasteries, and schools are estimated to have been destroyed during hostilities, although figures are difficult to verify. The level of destruction of civilian properties, particularly homes, combined with the seemingly never-ending fighting will very likely prolong the displacement of the IDPs and would further deteriorate their already fragile living conditions. The current volatile security situation and its associated restrictions, such as bureaucratic processes, systematic blocks on access approvals, continue to hamper humanitarian access and delay the delivery of assistance.

The purpose of this Rapid Gender Analysis on Power & Participation (RGA-P) is to build a better understanding as to whether and how women are able to participate in the community and in decision making spaces in the Northern Shan State of Myanmar and what changes may have occurred as a result of the conflict and women’s participation and leadership. The research was conducted through primary and secondary data collection in July 2022 in three villages in the Lashio Township of the Northern Shan State, Myanmar.
Summary of the findings
The main factors that were found to restrict women’s access and opportunity to participate in public decision making and leadership roles were related to
➢ Social norms and expectations of the role women are expected to play/hold in society and the views that female characteristics are not fit for leadership roles.
➢ The expectation that women are responsible for all of the household chores, childcare and care for elderly.
➢ Restrictions on women’s movement (controlled by husbands and elder family members) also impedes women’s rights to engage in spaces outside of the home.
➢ In addition, barriers such a slow literacy rates in Myanmar language (the language used is most formal meetings/decision making spaces) Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Policy Brief: Türkiye & Northwest Syria Earthquake Response

Earthquakes are gender neutral - they affect everyone in their vicinity - but their impacts are not. Gender inequality exacerbates the impact of disasters, and the impacts of disasters exacerbate gender inequality. The earthquake in Türkiye and Northwest Syria (NW Syria) – the largest earthquake to affect the region in 200 years - occurred in areas already affected by mass displacement and population movements for over a decade, as well as long-standing protection issues. One thing is clear, however, where the impacts of the earthquake are gendered, the response must be too. This first Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) Brief explores existing gender, age and disability data and information to understand pre-existing vulnerabilities and capacities and how best humanitarians can respond to meet people’s different needs. Read More...

Sacrificing the Future to Survive the Present: North East Syria RGA

Amid a tense and fragile security situation, both male and female participants in this rapid gender analysis (RGA) identified their main concerns as their loss of income and livelihoods and the increased cost of food. The intensifying food crisis is further aggravated by disruptions to wheat production, climate change, continued insecurity and the war in Ukraine, which has significantly reduced Syria’s grain imports.
The fragility of the food system, combined with the water crisis and the near collapse of the labor market, has aggravated chronic food insecurity and malnutrition in the region, leading to profound short and long-term impacts on health and resilience. One in three children face malnutrition, and those under five need nutritional interventions, as do pregnant and lactating women.
Most households that took part in this RGA said their food needs were not being met despite aid distributions. Female-headed households, widows and people with disabilities are particularly vulnerable. About 38% of households living in camps for internally displaced people (IDPs) are female-headed.
The number of female heads of household and other women in the labor market has increased, but limitations on women’s mobility, economic participation and decision making persist, as do social and cultural expectations about the role of men as main decision makers and community leaders.
All respondents said the conflict was increasingly restricting their freedom of movement. Women’s main fears in terms of their mobility related to harassment and exploitation, and men’s to kidnap or recruitment by armed actors. All respondents identified lack of transportation, high costs and insecurity as the main obstacles to accessing health services. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) Kassala Sudan

This Rapid Gender Analysis on Power and Participation (RGA-P) was carried out to understand women’s participation in both formal and informal structures, and the barriers to and opportunities for supporting women’s meaningful participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State. This RGA P was conducted in Kassala, a state in East Sudan, which borders Ethiopia and Eritrea and has a population of 2,8 million with a population of 1,271,780 below the age of 18. Annually, Kassala state is affected by natural crisis, floods, droughts and subsequent desertification, as well as man-made crisis. Refugees from Tigray and Eritrea settled in Kassala, making the state susceptible to higher rates of trafficking, smuggling and violence. Kassala state is one of the states with the country’s worst social indicators on malnutrition. Women and adolescent girls are exposed to high rates of female genital mutilation (FGM), high risk of kidnapping and high rates of child early marriage; with FGM and gender based violence (including FGM and early child marriange) all normalized within society. The prevalence of FGM in Kassala is at 40 % and children as young as six years are being engaged to be married.
As part of the RGAP, a training was conducted with staff and partner staff on Women Lead in Emergencies (WLiE). The training helped staff to appreciate the approach as well as the methodology. Following the training, a team of sixteen staff members (15 female and 1 male) participated in the primary data collection in three villages. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted with groups of women and men. Key informant interviews (KIIs) were held with women leaders, community leaders, government officials as well as one of the agencies that has been implementing in the area. Secondary data collection was also done to triangulate and validate findings.
Women in the three villages visited have limited decision making power and voice, both within the home and in public spaces. Some of the barriers to participation cited by women included lack of education, harmful social norms and practices that limit women and girls’ mobility and participation in public, and limited access and control over resources.
In the three villages where this RGA P focused, Wad Eissa, Shalataib, and Wad Bau villages, findings indicated there are no women participating in the key local level governance structure, referred to as the Popular Committee. Men occupy all the leadership positions and where women’s names were included in the membership list, it was often tokenistic without the women’s own awareness of their role. Apart from the popular committee, there is a community level “father’s group” that supports education in Wad Bau, there were no other visible formal or informal decision-making structures.
Only one active women’s group was identified in Wad Elisa, but no other women’s groups or associations were identified in the rest of the three villages. The group in Wad Eisa had been formed as a result of interventions lead by a German NGO, Welthungerhilfe (WHH), in the area. The other villages had had limited interactions with outside organizations both national, international and even the government.
The entry points to enhancing women’s participation and leadership during the health and WASH protracted crisis in Kassala State can be through the engagement of the traditional and trained midwives, the female teachers, and the mothers’ groups. CARE under the health and nutrition project are looking to form mothers and fathers’ group. This will help bring women together and create safe spaces for women to work together. In the three villages, there are trained midwives, and in Wad Bau there are three female teachers. These women already have the respect and support of the women, and these women can conduct awareness sessions and facilitate discussions with groups of women, regarding their concerns and how they can come together and take the lead in addressing issues that affect them. As teachers are often from outside the village and stay only for a few months at a time, this can be an effective starting point for engaging women but a more sustainable approach will need to be considered as well. Through the father’s groups, men and boys can be engaged, to mitigate GBV risks, that could emerge, due to women’s participation in decision making regarding different community issues. According to one of the male leaders, men have been resistant of women participating in decision making platforms, and social norms are not open to women speaking in front of men.
Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Sinjar District, Ninewa Governorate, Iraq

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of the Crisis Centre of the French Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs (CDCS), is providing Livelihood and Protection services in Sinjar District in Ninewa governorate. CARE Iraq is implementing the services through its local partner Dak Organization for Ezidi Women Development (Dak). CARE Iraq undertook a Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) to understand different gender norms, roles, and power dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable and dignified access to the services.
The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which, together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate, has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political and economic instabilities is having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. Sinjar District is the most affected area by the Islamic State of Iraq and Levant (ISIL); it has suffered a tragic human loss in addition to the loss of infrastructure, livelihoods, and homes. Following the liberation in 2017, IDPs started to move back to Sinjar; however, until this date, the provision and availability of basic services like health, Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH), and livelihoods, as well as reconstruction of housing and infrastructure, is relatively low. The current situation has a negative impact on the community in terms of safety and security, which is clearly reflected in the lowest IDP return rates (35%) compared to other districts in Iraq in 20211.
There are several concerns around livelihoods and the lack of adequate protection services for the targeted community that need to be addressed to ensure safe and equitable access to all members of the community. Read More...

Post Program Sustainability Assessment of Women’s Economic Empowerment in Yemen

Rebuilding livelihoods is of key importance in fragile settings that experienced intense (man-made or natural) shocks causing distribution of household’s capacities to thrive. As CARE has defined its objective to contribute to the reduction of gender inequality and create equal opportunities for both men and women, it is a natural aspect of their work to integrate Women’s Economic Justice (WEJ) also in locations marked by long-term fragility. CARE does not only want to rebuild livelihoods, but it also wants to contribute to building a more inclusive economic system, where both men and women can benefit from and contribute to economic growth. Working in such fragile settings however, dominated by ongoing violence, destruction and the prioritization of humanitarian aid, requires a conscious adjustment of our vision and approach for WEJ. Several teams and programs, among them CARE Yemen and CARE Northeast Syria, have been piloting and learning about supporting WEJ in fragile settings. It is crucial for organizational growth and learning that these pioneering efforts are documented and further analysed. This has been the objective of the forthcoming publication Women Economic Justice Review in Fragile Settings (by the Regional Applied Economic Empowerment Hub). Read More...

GENDER, PROTECTION AND AAP RISK ASSESSMENT 2022

Borno state in Northeast Nigeria is experiencing a complex humanitarian crisis due to the activities of Organized Armed Groups (OAG), and natural disasters (such as floods, and desertification), resulting in displacement, an increased level of food insecurity, and malnutrition among the populace, and deaths. Thousands of pastoralists and farmers are left without their livelihood sources resulting in extreme poverty. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has compounded the problems faced by locals due to several restrictions resulting in the disruption of many economic and social activities. More so, is the general inflation in the prices of commodities and services. Read More...

Rapid Gender Analysis Khanki, Sharya, and Derabon Districts, Duhok Governorate, Iraq September 2022

CARE International in Iraq (CARE Iraq) with the support of The Directorate General for European Civil Protection and Humanitarian Aid Operation (DG ECHO) is providing life-saving support in Protection and WASH to highly vulnerable persons in acute displacement in Duhok Governorate, Iraq. CARE Iraq is directly implementing WASH activities, while Protection activities are implemented through CARE’s local partner, The Lotus Flower (TLF). CARE Iraq aims to understand different gender norms, roles, and dynamics, in addition to the specific needs of women, girls, and vulnerable people in the project locations to ensure safe, equitable, and dignified access to the services.

The conflict in Iraq and the protracted humanitarian crisis have had a severe impact on infrastructure and service delivery in general, which together with the COVID-19 pandemic and the rise of the unemployment rate has led to an increase in existing Gender Based Violence (GBV) and protection risks. The continuance of political, and economic instabilities and the decline of humanitarian aid are having a huge effect on the population as a whole; however, conflicts and emergencies impact women and girls differently, and understanding different roles, dynamics and needs will help improve the quality of and access to those services. Dohuk Governorates hosts 155,300 IDPs, including 105,500 living in camps and 45,700 in approx. 401 informal sites.
Key findings
 Around 40% of women in the targeted communities don’t feel that their hygiene needs are being met.
 Around 70% of women in the targeted communities don’t get consulted about their needs by aid organizations
 Women and girls face limited mobility which mainly due to cost of transportation, security, and cultural acceptance
 Water resources are controlled and allocated to families by the Mukhtars.
 Household decision making pertaining to finance are mainly controlled by men, whereas domestic decisions are jointly made. Read More...

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