cash and vouchers

Applying Behavioral Science to Humanitarian Cash & Voucher Assistance for Better Outcomes for Women in MENA

Ideas42 and CARE International conducted research in three of CARE’s countries of presence—Iraq, Jordan, and Turkey—to develop a thorough understanding of the contexts in which women recipients in these settings receive, make decisions on, and use CVA to support themselves and their households. In the pages that follow, we aim to share behavioral insights that shed new light on the many challenges facing women when using CVA in humanitarian settings in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. In summary, some of the key design principles that can increase the impact of CVA for women include minimizing the mental burdens placed on women throughout the transfer process, priming women to affirm positive identities at key times, making the full range of what CVA can be used for visible, and framing CVA in ways that encourages planning and careful consideration of spending priorities.

Though the guidance is best used during project assessment and design, it can be adapted to different phases in the project cycle. Users are encouraged to ensure that a wider range of specialists participate in discussions seeking to incorporate the guidance—including CVA Monitoring, Evaluation, Accountability and Learning (MEAL) teams, and sector specialists or technical leads. It can also be used as a point of reflection for evaluation or after-action reviews. In addition, the involvement of program support staff and senior management will be valuable to ensure that the points are actionable and properly resourced. Overall, we hope that this guidance at the least starts a wider conversation on applied behavioral science in the humanitarian space and encourages humanitarian organizations to work to implement behaviorally-informed programs with CVA. Read More...

Gender Implications of Cash Transfers in Malawi

The government of Malawi operates a national safety net program targeting the poorest 10% of the population with unconditional cash transfers and the next poorest 15% with conditional cash transfers through a Cash for Work (CfW) program and vouchers for subsidized agricultural inputs. In 2019 the Government, with support from development partners, has started implementation of an ultra-poor graduation program in nine districts which support ultra-poor households with livelihood grants and complementary services. This safety net is designed to quickly scale to more people or to provide more money to existing participants in case of emergencies.
CARE Malawi set out to identify the gendered implications of this cash programming and how participants’ experiences of cash transfers affected gender equality. To do so, CARE used a combination of literature review and primary data collection with stakeholder consultations, key informant interviews, and focus group discussions (FGDs) at national, district, and community levels. Because of the large-scale cash response to Cyclone Idai in 2019—largely operated through international nongovernmental organizations (NGOs)—the study also compared gendered impacts of the government program and NGO humanitarian response. Read More...

Go Green Project in Tanzania: Access To Sustainable Energy Solutions in Moshi, Hai and Same Districts in Kilimanjaro Region

The Go Green was a three-year project (2017-2019) seeking to increase the number of women in Kilimanjaro Region of Tanzania, who adopt and directly benefit from clean energy products through an innovative market-based approach. The objective of this evaluation was to assess the efficiency, effectiveness, relevance, and sustainability (evaluation criteria) of project implementation and, in particular, to document the results of the project in relation to its overall objective and expected results as defined in the project document. Additionally, the evaluation identified good practices and lessons learned which can be used when designing similar interventions in the future.

This project is working in three districts of Moshi, Hai and Same. The Kilimanjaro Region is one of the worst affected in
Tanzania by the impacts of climate change and variability with observed increase in temperature, decrease in precipitation levels, floods and droughts. Go Green is directly links with the private sector to improve last mile distribution at district and village level, thereby increasing disposable household income for women entrepreneurs. Read More...

CARE Rapid Gender Analysis Tropical Cyclone IDAI Zimbabwe

Zimbabwe was hit by Cyclone Idai between the 15th and 17th of March. The tropical storm caused riverine and flash flooding in the eastern and southern part of Zimbabwe resulting in loss of life, injury, destruction of livelihoods, houses, roads, bridges and other public infrastructures. An estimated 270 000 people have been affected by Cyclone Idai.

CARE conducted a Rapid Gender Analysis to identify and make recommendation to the different sectors in the response on how to meet the different needs of women, men, boys and girls during and after the emergence. Secondary and primary data was collected from the 1st to the 4th of April 2019. Field Visits and Focus group discussions were held in 4 of the affected areas, Chimanimani, Chipinge, Buhera and Mutare Rural District. Through consultations with the affected men, women, boys and girls, the team was able to identify both immediate and long term needs for the communities, families and the different groups.

Mind the Gap Exploring the Gender Dynamics of CARE Rwanda’s Village Savings and Loans (VSL) Programming

This report documents the process, tools and key findings of a Gender Gap Analysis (GGA) carried out by CARE
Rwanda in late 2011 to explore how gender dynamics influence the process and outcomes of the VSL methodology
as a programming platform for women’s empowerment. The findings of the CARE Rwanda Gender Gap Analysis indicate that normative gender roles and inequitable power relations between men and women significantly constrain women’s ability to fully participate in and benefit from the VSL methodology. The specific objectives of the CARE Rwanda GGA were:

 To learn how gender norms shape women’s participation in and benefits from VSL groups;
 To understand the different experiences of men and women participating in VSL groups; and
 To formulate recommendations for strengthening the VSL methodology to address issues relating to gender
dynamics.

Rapid Gender Analysis North West Syria (Idleb and Aleppo)

This Rapid Gender Analysis (RGA) focused on gendered work practices and attitudes, access to services, protection and coping mechanisms. Past research indicated that the role of women has been further marginalised during the protracted conflict and there was gap in information around gender dynamics, trends, roles and responsibilities and power dynamics in Idleb. Understanding these trends and patterns helps to inform program activities and procedures, including how to better target women and girls in ways that are safe, equitable, and empowering within the local context. Information about effective male engagement is also required to understand what actions and processes are useful to help reinforce the work of supporting women, elderly women and men and adolescent women and men during the protracted crisis.
The RGA focused on the Aleppo and Idleb Governorates in North West Syria. The objectives are focused on capturing the approach that has worked in reaching and supporting vulnerable women and men of different ages under the Water, Sanitation and Health (WASH), shelter, rapid response, cash for work / livelihoods and protection sectors; analyse the level, type and extent of changes that have occurred and are taking place as a result of conflict and displacement at household and community levels in relation to gender and power differentials (structure, relations and agency) and the reasons / factors behind those changes,; review the functionality of formal or informal support structures established for Gender Based Violence (GBV) survivors of any age and to develop a set of actionable recommendations, short and medium-term, based on key findings. Read More...

Umeed-e-Nau Project Health and WASH Support project for drought affect people of Umerkot, Sindh

This report present the external evaluation of Umeed-e-Nau project - Health and WASH Support project for drought affect people of Umerkot, Sindh. The project was implemented by CARE International in Pakistan (CIP) through its partner CWSA under UNOCHA’s PHPF-III from February – December 2019.

The evaluation of the CIP’s Umeed-e-Nau project has been carried out as per the DAC criteria such as Relevance/appropriateness, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Impact and Sustainability. However, CIP has included an additional criteria i.e. Project Management.

Findings of the final evaluation indicate that CIP rightly identified the needs in holistic manner, as the people in the target area were struggling for water and vulnerable to different health related hazards. The community appreciated all the project activities particularly the MMCs due to quality services, equipment and medicines. Innovations introduced by CIP and donor’s flexibility to understand and approve required changes was also an important factor for paving a smooth path towards achieving successful results of the project. The capacity building and awareness raising activities like health & hygiene training, nutrition awareness has inbuilt sustainability. In both WASH and Health interventions, the impact on behaviors and practice can be observed with passage of time. The trend of use of latrines, water filtrations, consultation with qualified health practitioners, realization of importance of health care especially maternal health and last but not the least hygiene awareness are likely to impact positively on beneficiaries’ individual and communal lives for many years.


Final Evaluation of the Project Building resilience among refugees and their Jordanian hosts

From the period 1/09/2017- 31/08/2019, CARE International in Jordan implemented a project titled “Building resilience among refugees and their Jordanian hosts” and the project aimed at supporting vulnerable Syrian refugees and Jordanians to enhance resilience and protection, especially from gender-based violence (GBV), through improved access for men and women to dignified, sustainable livelihoods in the Syria crisis highly-impacted areas of Amman, Zarqa and the Azraq refugee camp, while promoting social cohesion between Syrians and vulnerable Jordanians through joint programming and the provision of dignified solutions for long-term urgent cash needs.

• An effective project design and proposal document which included all components of a proposal document and it is considered to be a strong basis for an effective implementation process.
• Availability of planning documents to include detailed work plans, log frames, need analysis.
• Availability of M&E system.
• Conformity with donor regulations and standards.
• The implemented project responded to a number of strategies to include the Jordan Response plan and CARE International annual plans and strategies.

According to literature and desk review we conclude the following;
• Project’s provided documents in design and planning phases in addition to the implemented M&E process supported to accelerate the effectiveness of project operations and implementations and this is evident through the desk review and interviews with consortium partners who acknowledge this aspect.
• It is evident that the project was designed to respond to national strategies like the Jordan Response Plan 2018-2020.


This report provides the results of the final evaluation of the Emergency Food Security Program (EFSP) implemented in twelve districts within the four regions of Sool, Sanaag, Galgaduud and Mudug that was conducted during July and August 2019.

Over and above the program performance parameters, the beneficiaries overwhelmingly indicated that the program had had significant positive impacts. The program was considered timely as it was delivered when beneficiaries were getting into months of food insecurity. When asked whether the cash transfer had improved their livelihoods, 93% of the household survey respondents reported that their livelihoods had improved, mainly in terms of improved purchasing power (93%), ease of meeting their basic needs (78%), better social status (22%), better and more recognition (17%), taking children to school (14%), access to healthcare (9%) and in other (non-described) areas (7%). In the household survey, 94% of the respondents received three cycles of the correct amount, whilst 5% who were targeted under the Rapid Response Fund (RRF) received two cycles enabling households to purchase their preferred foods, at least 25Kg of rice, 25Kg of sugar, 25kg wheat flour, 3kg of cooking oil, 10kg of pasta and some vegetables.

The program had a positive impact on the 52,299 households enrolled. The programme resulted in a reduction of distress coping strategies, with an average rCSI of 12.8 reducing from 20.4 at the program baseline. This supports the effectiveness of the program in enabling the beneficiaries to reduce the number of negative coping strategies that they were previously employing in order to meet basic household needs. In addition, as planned, all the households used the cash transfer to meet their basic needs, with 97% of them using the cash transfer to purchase food for the household, indicating that the cash intervention has directly contributed to the enhancement of the household food security during the drought. Trend analysis shows that throughout the program there was a downward trend of the rCSI scores, while there was an increase of household dietary diversity index to 20.4 compared to the baseline of 12.8. Similarly, an analysis of household hunger shows that in general the beneficiaries were experiencing little to no hunger, with only 13% experiencing moderate hunger and 86% of households experiencing little to no hunger. This again indicates that the programme has achieved positive outcomes.

While the evidence suggests that the program generated a number of positive impacts, across many domains, demonstrating effective and efficient implementation, and that the beneficiaries used the cash as per the original objectives of the program, households continue to faces challenges in their capacity to fully recover from the impacts of conflict and drought. Increasing the scale of interventions and developing additional holistic livelihood strategies for the target areas, creating linkages with market-based interventions and improvement in access to water, education and healthcare, experimenting with graduation models combined with local savings (VSLAs) were among some of the areas identified for improving future programming. A more detailed description of these recommendations is provided towards the tail end of the report. Read More...

Somalia Resilience Program Third Party Monitoring: Midline Assessment

The Somalia Resilience Program (SomReP) is a consortium of seven international non-governmental organisations (INGOs). The aim of the consortium is to enhance the resilience of vulnerable households and communities in Southern Somalia against cyclical shocks and stressors. The program’s activities focus on securing livelihoods and increasing adaptive capacities of communities and households in Somalia.

Overall, positive developments from the baseline was noted for most of the indicators analyzed in this report. Most of these positive developments could be attributed to different programme interventions. The attribution was tested through statistical correlation analysis and by synthesizing programme documents and the data collected at various stages throughout the project. The food security status of the respondents had improved, both in terms of food consumption and coping strategies. For example, the proportion of the respondents categorized as having an acceptable level of the Food Consumption Score (FCS) had increased from 48.5% in the baseline to 80.4% in the midline. The income of the respondents had also improved with both a significantly higher average income as well as more diversified income being reported. Those respondents that were part of a savings scheme as well as those that had received cash distributions through Cash for Work (CfW) or Unconditional Cash Transfers (UCT) reported higher FCS than those who had not. Respondents that had received cash distributions were also positively associated with higher incomes. As such, it is recommended that both VSLA and cash programming interventions should be sustained and if possible scaled-up. It is worth noting that livelihoods were still largely climate sensitive, with day labour in agriculture being the most common and important livelihood strategy, especially for male respondents. This implies that most people are still highly vulnerable to climatic shocks, such as drought. Read More...

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